only protein synthesis decreases.
-Normally liver cells do this when the level of insulin is low (which normally correlates with low levels of blood glucose)
-Higher insulin levels increase some anabolic processes such as cell growth and duplication, protein synthesis, and fat storage
-Insulin (or its lack) is the principal signal in converting many of the bidirectional processes of metabolism from a catabolic to an anabolic direction, and vice versa
-In particular, a low insulin level is the trigger for entering or leaving ketosis (the fat burning metabolic phase) .If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not have its usual effect so that glucose will not be absorbed properly by those body cells that require it nor will it be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles.
peripheral cells take up more glucose
Lack of insulin reduces the body’s ability to utilise nutrients (fuel) properly. If nutrients can’t get into cells performance (stimulus) and recovery will be negatively affected limiting muscle growth, Hyperglycemia increases muscle protein breakdown and limits the protein synthesis – the process of creating new proteins. On the other hand, hypoglycemia steals energy and mental focus making training difficult and in many cases dangerous. Fix Obsess over your blood glucose control. Do all you can to keep blood glucose levels in healthy range.
The net effect is persistent high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis
-When the glucose concentration in the blood is raised beyond its renal threshold (about 10 mmol/L), this may be altered in certain conditions, such as pregnancy), re-absorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubuli is incomplete, and part of the glucose remains in the urine (glycosuria)
-This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits re-absorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss.