08/01/2018 · What is needed for photosynthesis to ..
Ponds are among the richest and the most interesting natural environments to observe. Tomake a pond it is sufficient to have a garden or, a meadow or a wood near your home. It isnot necessary to be large, a square meter (9 square feet) of surface is sufficient, buttwo(18 sq. ft.) are better. Find a shady position in the garden. Dig a hole of about 2square meters, 50 cm(2 feet) deep. At least one side, the border has to gently slope downto allow to little animals to enter and leave, for hedgehogs and opossums to drink and tobirds to bath without being too deep. Put some sand in the bottom. Leave the grass on theside. Bare roots are okay. Waterproof the hole with a tarpaulin of white PVC. Why white?Because you can see aquatic animals better when they come near the shore. Cover the borderof the tarpaulin with the grass sod. Allow the tarpaulin to extend for at least 40 cm (16inches) beyond the sloping shore. In this position you can keep the water in such a way tocreate the typical conditions of a marsh. Fill up the pond with tap water and shovel somesand or soil in the bottom: they will benefit the aquatic plants. Go to a natural pond ormarsh and collect some aquatic plants. If it is possible, carry some gallons of water fromthe pond and pour them into your puddle, which will be enriched with microorganisms,algae, and animals, which live in ponds. In few days, your little pond will become greenwith algae and very rich of protozoa. Rapidly dragonflies will come to lay eggs, boatflies, coleoptera and aquatic spiders also will come. In the spring, frogs and newtswill come to lay eggs. The observation of the life in a pond is fascinating. You canremain for hours watching the organisms, which live in this ecosystem. Buy books torecognize the organisms that live in the ponds. See bibliography (5, 6). These texts willalso give you also useful information on the habits of these plants and animals. For anexercise, note your observations in a book, glue pictures, and sketch drawings. Everyyear, during the fall, you should clear out the pond. Shovel out the stinking mud, washthe tarpaulin, or changed it if it leaks, put some tap water, winter rain will supply theremaining part. In spite of what shopkeepers will tell you, your pond does not need pumpsto circulate water, nor aerators, nor falls, nor fountains, nor anything else. The pond isbetter to be as natural as possible. Little ponds of private gardens are very important toamphibians. Avoid introducing fish. They will eat the eggs of the amphibians and thetadpoles. Moreover, the newts will keep the pond free from the mosquito larvae. When thereare tadpoles, your pond will be visited by water snakes, with difficulty you will noticeof them!... and --- don't be frightened: they are harmless!
Multiple Microhabitat Pond Microcosm (good cross section of a pond)
A Large Pond
Building a Pond
"Pond" Cultures of Microscopic Invertebrates
Internet keywords: pond building homemade.
How do the substances for photosynthesis enter and leave the …
The chief cause of rhododendron death is water, either too much or not enough. Too much causes root rot which is fatal. Too little causes dieback which kills the plant one branch at a time. Rhododendrons and most other plants like "moist well-drained soil". That makes it sound like no matter what you do you can't do it right. However, if the area has good drainage and you use mulch, it should be easy to achieve moist well-drained soil. To check for good drainage, dig a hole about 10 to 12 inches deep and fill it with water. Then after it drains, fill it again and see how long it takes to drain. If the hole drains within an hour you have good drainage. If the water has not drained out of the hole within one hour, the soil is poorly drained and you must correct the drainage problem before planting. Install a perforated pipe or drain tile in the garden, making sure that the outlet is lower than the bottom of the planting hole, or build raised beds. [The sketch by Harold Greer shows how to use a raised bed.] Rhododendrons are easy to transplant most any time. It is best to avoid transplanting when new leaves are coming out or the ground is frozen. If the drainage is OK, then you can keep the area moist with a good mulch layer. Mulches conserve water in the soil, insulate roots against summer heat and winter cold, and discourage weeds. Replenish mulches annually, as needed, to maintain a 3- to 5-inch layer on the soil surface. Keep the mulch about 3" to 4" back from the trunk/stem of the plants to avoid collar rot, bark split, rodent damage and providing shelter for weevils. Mulching does increase the risk of weevil damage. Fine-textured organic mulches such as pine straw or shredded bark are best. Fall leaves are an excellent mulch, except don’t use black walnut or butternut leaves. They have a chemical, juglone, that kills rhododendrons and azaleas. During hot dry weather, it is common to see rhododendron leaves look wilted. It they look wilted in the heat of the day, that is normal. If they look wilted in the morning, that is a sign that the plant is either too dry or dying from being too wet. It should be easy to tell which, but don't assume, check the soil with your finger. During drought periods, it may be necessary to water once in a while. A deep watering when the plant shows signs of dryness is much better than frequent watering. Only water when the plants show signs of being dry.
Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants are simply placed in water with the necessary chemicals. As plants are deprived of support from the ground, they will fall down. To support the plants, an inert material like expanded clay pebbles is used in a pot in the tank (figure 5). Before inserting a plant in a hydroponic system, you must carefully remove all soil from the roots otherwise bacteria will putrefy them.
For many houseplants you can use tap water. Though, particularly for vegetables, it is advised to add appropriate nutrients. This cultivation method has the advantages of both requiring less frequent waterings and using very little water. With this system you can grow nearly any houseplant or vegetable. Hydroponics is useful also to show what nutrition plants need.
1 - Place some houseplants in hydroponics.
2 - Try hydroponics with vegetables and find the suitable nutrients.
Hydroponics in the Classroom
Growing plants without soil
To teach orphaned children how to grow their own food with hydroponics (gardening that uses very little water).
Organic Greenhouse Vegetable Production
Internet keywords: hydroponics classroom.