hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, carotenoids - Lipid

Beta-carotene - Beta-carotene is one of the orange dyes found in most green leaves, and in carrots

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The xanthophyll cycle involves the enzymatic removal of epoxy groups from xanthophylls (e.g. , antheraxanthin, diadinoxanthin) to create so-called de-epoxidised xanthophylls (e.g. diatoxanthin, ). These enzymatic cycles were found to play a key role in stimulating energy dissipation within light-harvesting antenna proteins by - a mechanism to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the photosynthetic reaction centers. Non-photochemical quenching is one of the main ways of protecting against . In higher plants, there are three carotenoid pigments that are active in the xanthophyll cycle: violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin. During light stress, violaxanthin is converted to zeaxanthin via the intermediate antheraxanthin, which plays a direct photoprotective role acting as a lipid-protective and by stimulating non-photochemical quenching within light-harvesting proteins. This conversion of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin is done by the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase, while the reverse reaction is performed by zeaxanthin epoxidase.

These compounds form the simplest form of lipids, they contain only carbon and hydrogen

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It does not actively contribute in photosynthesis, but instead it transmits the energy it absorbs to and also plays a protective role for chlorophyll being a powerful antioxidant that protects organic molecules from being destroyed by oxidation. Carotene is the dimer of vitamin A and comes in two forms alpha and Beta-carotene.


Then there are carotenoids which include pigments anywhere from red to orange-yellow.
spinach leaves contain mainly chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, beta-carotene, and smaller amounts of xanthophylls.
Xanthophylls- oxidized versions of carotenes,
play a secondary role in photosynthesis.