Note that you do not need this feature to use this site.

Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of .

That's whywe call it PHOTOsynthesis.

The are positioned off the Malaysian coast. Sailors , as the natives killed anybody who landed and burned their bodies. The Andamans looked like African pygmies. The British established a penal colony on the Andaman Islands in the late 1700s, when about five thousand aboriginal Andamans lived on the main islands. The Andaman from the usual diseases, mayhem, and alcohol that Europeans brought with them, and they were nearly extinct within a century of British contact. . The genetic and other evidence has been used to make a convincing case that the aboriginal Andamans were island-dwarfed descendants of the original inhabitants. The Andaman Islands were never connected to the mainland, so the aborigines probably descended from people who stopped and stayed during that founder migration from Africa.

we need water for photosynthesis).

organic compound producedduring photosynthesis

As with the previous Epochal Events, the appearance of new energy technology that could harness the new energy source always the event, which tapped around an order of magnitude above that previously achieved. It will likely be no different this time, and as with the other Epochal Events, a tiny fraction of humanity will initiate the event, it will be copied by the rest of humanity, and it will transform the human journey in ways that were unimaginable before the Epochal Event (, , , ).

Answers &explanations can be found in the extremely secret answer area (no peeking!).

Volcanism can not only temporarily alter the atmosphere’s chemistry, but the ash from volcanism can also block sunlight from reaching Earth’s surface and lead to atmospheric cooling. Carbon dioxide vented by volcanism in the Mesozoic era is . Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. When continental plates come together into a supercontinent, oceanic currents can fail and the oceans can become anoxic, as atmospheric oxygen is no longer drawn into the global ocean’s depths, which may have . When continents are near the poles, , but in our current ice age the tipping point is , which is affected by, among other influences, the Moon.

source of energy forphotosynthesis


photosynthestic membersof the Kingdom Monera

Anthropologists and primate researchers , but relatively recent scientific findings have disproven that notion. , and it is more sophisticated with great apes. It took a few million years after the human/chimp split for our ancestors to learn to , and that culture then spread widely in Africa. The , , and were probably all closely related and at least partly interdependent, but little seemed to change . Then the and possessed a larger brain, and new tools and behaviors are evident . The timeframes continually shrank between major events in the human journey. Only 200 thousand years later, and , and new behaviors are in evidence. Only 100 thousand years after that, anatomically modern humans appeared. Only 30 thousand years after that, about 170 kya, , probably due to necessity, where life once again was eked out on the margins, and those humans may have decorated their bodies. About 100 kya, innovation seems to have accelerated again, and by 75-60 kya there is evidence of . Needles and perhaps even arrowheads first appeared about 60 kya. There is no doubt among scientists that members of made those advances, and their artifacts provided evidence of increasing cultural and technical sophistication, which soon left Neanderthals and all other land animals far behind. About 75-70 kya, a , and there is controversy today whether that eruption was partly responsible for the that passed through not long afterward. What became today’s humanity seems to have nearly gone extinct at that bottleneck.

The waxy coating onthe surface of a leaf is the ....

The picture emerging from global is that all humans on Earth today are descended from a founder population that lived in East Africa, again near the Horn of Africa, around 60-50 kya. Geneticists think that the founder population amounted to about five thousand people, and of that population, a few hundred humans at most left Africa about 60-50 kya and conquered the world. If any people ever lived up to , it would have been them. It may have been because they were members of the first primate species to master language.

Water is lost from theleaves of plants through openings called ...

Whatever the case may be, it appears clear that the population in Africa and Neanderthal population in Europe and the Middle East were isolated for tens of thousands of years, perhaps far more than 100,000 years, and humans used a toolkit like the Neanderthals’ until something happened between 70 and 50 kya. Just happened is a matter of great controversy, and in recent years, several disciplines have converged on the issue and are drawing a clearer picture today. Some key findings that shed light came from global DNA studies, linguistics partnering with evolutionary theory, and brain studies. In the past generation, as has been applied to many areas, a startling picture of the human journey has emerged. , probably for flexible power generation. For animals that reproduce sexually, the mother’s mitochondria are passed to her offspring, while virtually none comes from the father, if any. Geneticists can measure mutations in and approximate when two different animals shared a common ancestor, whether they belong to the same species or not. Similarly, regarding nuclear DNA, the produces a male mammal, and mutations in the Y chromosome can also be analyzed to estimate when two men shared the same ancestor. , but scientists have been aligning DNA results with fossil dates, which are considered more reliable, and have been resolving some limitations. But if the timing is suspect for such genetic analyses, far more confidence exists for descent relationships. Human DNA testing is a burgeoning business, used for everything from freeing to to examining the genetic heritage of the .