Non Inferiority & Equivalence Testing | Statistical Hypothesis …

Calculate Sample Size Needed to Compare 2 Proportions: 2-Sample Non-Inferiority or Superiority

What is the noninferiority margin

He complained bitterly of his religion teacher, saying how stupid and “out-of-it” the teacher was. He couldn’t stand her or her class. His cognitive-behavioral therapist listened attentively, waiting for an opportunity to help her client recognize the value of doing his assignments for the class in spite of his feelings toward his teacher. For not doing homework and skipping class were the client’s presenting problems. Though he was bright and capable, he was failing.

The 10% here is the non-inferiority margin

Can t-test be used for non-inferiority hypothesis testing…

Do the Parsis, Muslim Pakistanis and SL Buddhists (and Indian Christians and Sikhs), too, have subconscious notions of touch-me-not purity and cleanliness, and all? Do they, too, admire cricket’s timelessness, its emphasis on purity, and its attempt to contain aggressive competition through ritualization?

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Decoding is an essential element of all forms of psychotherapy because truth and its bedrock of facts are usually shrouded from both clients and therapists in spite of earnest attempts to reveal them. With rare exceptions, material that clients and therapists transfer from other people to each other lies largely, if not completely, outside the awareness of their conscious minds. Buried within the unconscious mind, it is inaccessible to the conscious mind except in subtle, camouflaged signs.

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Superiority, non-inferiority, equivalence studies - what …

The therapist was uneasy, not once but almost every time she met with her highly educated and wealthy client who had a subtle habit of demeaning her. She did not want to admit this uneasiness, however, either to herself or to her client. Instead, the therapist reasoned that she would be noticeably prepared when her client came and thus prove herself his equal. “Competition for outstanding performance is good for a person,” she said to herself. “It makes people reach for the heights others have attained,” she thought as she recalled seminars in which she felt inferior to male students.

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Impressed with the therapist’s reasoning, however, the staff pardoned the client, who in time not only repeated his behavior but took an even more adamant stand that he should not be held responsible. He was the worse for his therapist’s erroneous defense. He had been significantly harmed by his therapist’s acting-out, a result of her blindness to both his manipulating her and her own unresolved conflicts over being thought incompetent.

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Hence, therapists must also subject their own feelings, attitudes, thoughts, and behavior to the decoding process. What appears to be a positive urge, for example, like wanting to extend the session of the client who comes late, might actually be harmful because of its accompanying detrimental meta-message: “You are so valuable that I will be generous with my own time. You do not need to deal with the real reason you are late.”

When can Non-Inferiority Trials Establish Efficacy

An in-patient adolescent ended his session by telling his therapist that another staff member regarded her as incompetent. Unable to process her embarrassment and anger sufficiently, the therapist set out to prove her competence. During a staffing two hours later, she vigorously defended her client, blaming others for his bad behavior and insisting on the soundness of her judgment. Unfortunately, exoneration was the opposite of what her crafty client actually needed; He needed to take responsibility for his behavior.

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However, rather than address her painful countertransferential feelings of inferiority and impotence, the therapist again set out to convince the father, if not the son, of the value of patience and hard work, both within and outside therapy, and to convey her hope that things could change. As her professional and psychological survival became uppermost in her mind, she continued to act out – rather than decode – her powerful countertransferential feelings.