A mechanism for water splitting and oxygen production …

3. When the water is split, a waste product isreleased from the chloroplast =

Why Is Water Important to Photosynthesis? | Sciencing

Let us see now how protists and other little animals of ponds react to alteration to theirenvironment.
1 - Some microscopic algae, like the euglena, search out light (phototaxis) and to do thisthey use an organelle sensible to the light, named stigma. With a dark paper, cover thebottom part of a test tube holding a culture of euglena. The part of the test tube exposedto light should become green, rich with algae. Make the same experiment with othermicroscopic algae and with protozoa.
2 - Add two or three drop of distilled water to a little water drop collected in a pondand watch what happens to the protists. Very probably you will see them inflate and thenexplode. This occurs because of the different saline concentration inside and outside theprotists and the osmotic pressure which is produced inside their cells.
3 - Protists are sensitive to most chemicals and generally they react by running away; insome cases instead they approach them (chemotaxis). Prepare some microscope slides withprotists and observe through the microscope their behavior when you add acidic substances(i.e.: vinegar), basic substances (i.e.: backing soda), glucose, salt, sparkling water(rich of CO2), broth, milk, tiny grain of cheese, dyes, etc. At thebeginning use very low amounts of these substances, then increase their concentration.
4 - From a pond or an aquarium, collect a hydra and place it on a microscope slide with apair of water drops. Observing this tiny polyp through the microscope, probably you willsee some sucker shaped microorganisms (trichodina) moving on its body. Watch what happensafter adding a little drop of vinegar to their water! Trichodina will escape from thehydra and probably die. Hydra itself will have launched many of its harmful paralyzingdarts.
5 - Submit protists to different stimulus such as light, temperature, electric field(about 5 V in DC). In this last case, some protists will gather on the cathode (thenegative - pole). Also amebas are inclined to move towards the cathode. Change thepolarity of the current and observe the behavior of the protists.
Internet Keyword: phototaxis chemotaxis protists.

The device could be an affordable way to harvest water from air in underdeveloped, arid regions

Photosynthesis – Plant Management in Florida Waters

Photosynthetic organisms use energy from sunlight to synthesize their own fuels. They can convert harvested sunlight into chemical energy (including ATP) to then drive the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. When they synthesize the carbohydrates, oxygen gets released. Globally, more than 10 billion tons of carbon is "fixed" by plants every year - this means that carbon molecules are converted from being part of a simple gas (carbon dioxide) into more complex, reduced molecules (carbohydrates), making carbon available as food for non-photosynthesizers (and of course, providing oxygen). They use some of the carbohydrate for their own growth and reproduction. It is pretty remarkable when you think about it - have you been to Sequoia National Park or seen the redwoods along our northwest coast? Massive trees, right? Think about the fact that most of that mass is in the form of carbon that was pulled out of the air as carbon dioxide!

During this process of sugar production, carbon dioxide combines with water to form glucose and oxygen is released.

The bottle garden is a close relative of the biosphere: a tiny garden growing inside abottle, a glass sphere, or a demijohn. The main difference is that soil is the maincomponent not water. The container can be kept sealed or opened like a terrarium. Ourswill be more for just plants whereas the terrarium may have animals. These gardens in abottle, can be cured and perfected as a system, they are also very decorative, in fact youcan treat them as a bonsai with not only a single tree, but whole landscapes. A carefullychosen stone becomes a rock, a small plot of moss represents a great prairie. A contorted,little plant is now a hundred year old tree. Maybe a marsh wetlands with peat moss,mushrooms and ferns is more to your liking. Maybe appropriate succulent plants with sandand rocks for a vast desert landscape. The choice is yours. There is no rigid rule aboutbeing either an open or a closed garden. It maybe useful to keep the lid on to retainwater. Or eventually, the plants grow up and need to hang down the outside.
If the container is always sealed, the challenge becomes quite demanding. In fact, it thenis necessary to obtain an equilibrium between plants and animals in order to keep aneffective cycle of substances and energy, but if this is difficult in a predominantlywater environment, it is even more difficult in a just moist environment. So, the gardenhas to contain a moist soil, plants, little animals like terrestrial isopods (i.e.: sowbug, pill bug), earthworms, etc. Plants have to be resistant to high moisture and have asmall size and limited growth. To avoid roots rotten, you can also try to refer tohydroponics and substitute the ground with small sized expanded clay or with gravel. Inthis case you will have more difficulties in hosting animal species, so it will have to beleft open. It is important you place your garden in a cool and well illuminated place, butaway from direct sunlight. Open or closed, a bottle garden is a fascinating thing, and theidea itself of a little and self-sufficient world is fascinating as well. There are peopleso fond of bottle gardens they work at them a long time, taking care of them using longand thin tools and to observe these environments till they imagine to be one of theirinhabitants.
Then choose among these main options:
1 - Opened bottle garden, containing moist ground, plants and possible little animals. Itis suited for people who love taking care of gardens and who have a flair for
the architecture of little wide spaces.
2 - Opened bottle garden, prepared in hydroponics and containing plants. It is suited forthose who tend to forget to water their plants.
3 - Sealed bottle garden, holding moist soil, plants, and some little animals. Thisexercise is suitable for people who are keen on biology and scientific research. They willhave to find appropriate plants and animals suitable for a sealed ecosystem and will haveto achieve the necessary conditions for a long survival. This research, bibliographic inpart and experimental, will keep students happily busy for long time.
The educational value of these little ecosystems is evident. They can be carried out evenin a school, where the teacher will be allowed to illustrate their characteristics topupils and encourage interesting discussions. In the web sites below, you will findimportant practical information in building your bottle gardens.
Terrariums : Miniature Worlds in a Bottle!
BBC online, how to gardening, bottle garden
Un jardin en bouteille
Le terrarium : Un monde miniature dans une bouteille!
Internet keywords: garden bottle jar, jardin bouteille bonbonne.

An example of photosynthesis is how plants convert sugar and energy from water, air and sunlight into energy to grow.

what is the role of water in photosynthesis? | Yahoo …

The definition of photosynthesis is the process through which plants use water and carbon dioxide to create their food, grow and release excess oxygen into the air.

While in photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water yield glucose and ..

photosynthesis A. sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll in a leafB. carbon dioxide is taken in from the airC. water is transported from the rootsD. glucose is synthesized and distributed throughout the plantE. oxygen is released

The Production of Oxygen in Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a natural process by which trees and plants use energy from the sun and carbon dioxide from the air to make the food they need to live and grow. By storing carbon above and below the ground, the trees and plants in forests contribute to the production of oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis.

The Production of Oxygen in Photosynthesis ..

Making an aquarium or a terrarium is not a complicated thing. Learning to build them isvery useful for those who are fond of breeding animals, observing them, taking picturesand movies. You can use an aquarium to breed fish, amphibians, protists, algae, artemia,shrimps, etc. You can use a terrarium to breed many species of animals, but avoid raisingspecies which suffer in captivity. Aquaria and terrariums can be used also to take picturesof animals temporarily taken from their environment.
In their simpler form, acquaria and terrariums are simple glass boxes enclosed on 5 sidesand which can be provided with a lid. This simple container is suitable to breedamphibians and as a terrarium. Aquaria for fish require a compartment for a filter, a pumpfor water circulation, another pump for air, a thermostat, lighting, etc. We'll deal ofthe simplest aquaria.
How you can build an aquarium? In first you have to make a drawing. The bottom glass hasto be surrounded by the other four walls and it has to be the thickest. The thickness ofthe plates has to be proportioned to the size of the aquarium. Avoid building too wide,and more importantly, too high an aquarium. The pressure of the water increases and couldunglue the plates. After having drawn the acquarium you have to cut the glass plates bymeans of a glasscutter. To do this keep the glasscutter vertical and push down with forcewhile you move it along a ruler. This operation require practice, so use some scrap piecesuntil you have the necessary manual ability. It is important you use a sharp glasscutter,kept in oil to avoid rust. Before gluing the slabs, you have to round off the edges withsandpaper in order to remove their sharp edges. With some acetone, clean the slabs wherethe silicone rubber will be deposited. As the acetone is toxic, work outdoor or in a wellventilate piece. Use high quality transparent silicone. To keep the internal walls free ofexcessive glue, on the slabs and near the gluing positions, place stripes of sticking tape(figure 6). When the silicone is cured, remove these stripes and the excess glue.
: handling and cutting glass is a dangerousoperation which has to be made only by adult people wearing gloves and a heavy apron. Away to elegantly solve this problem is to order plates. A hardware or building supplystore can help. Never move aquaria and terrariums containing water or stones, move them onlywhen they are empty. Do not place aquaria in positions where a water leak could damagesomething below them, for example over electrical devices or sockets, and books. Onlyadults should handle glass-made aquaria or terrariums. Give children transparent plastictanks. Do not keep dangerous or rare organisms. Do not breed and most important, do notfree species which do not belong to your environment! Do not free sick animals or plants.
Building Tanks
Reef Aquarium Guide
CyberAqua (list of links)
Internet keywords: aquarium glass homemade.