National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics (22)

       Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER)
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"Is the Aluminum in vaccines safe?"

Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 - Title I: Coverage, Medicare, Medicaid, and Revenues - Subtitle A: Coverage - (Sec. 1001) Amends Internal Revenue Code provisions added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to revise the formula for calculating the refundable tax credit for premium assistance for coverage under a qualified health plan by establishing a sliding scale from the initial to the final premium percentage for individuals and families with household incomes up to 400% of the federal poverty line. Requires adjustments, after 2014 and after 2018, of the initial and final premium percentages to reflect the excess (if any) of the rate of premium growth over the rate of growth of income and the consumer price index.

Open access article summarizes use of comparative effectiveness research in integrative oncology.
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CER-related data, tools, and statistics

Semester course; 3 lecture and 60 clinical/laboratory hours. 5 credits (3 credits lecture and 2 credits clinical/laboratory). Prerequisites: , and , all completed with a minimum grade of C. Examines health care needs of children within the context of the family system. Focuses on application of evidence, nursing process, communication skills and critical thinking when providing nursing to children. Applies current theory and evidence related to the child and family environment, developmental capacity, stress, adaptation and resilience. Incorporates standards of care for both well and ill children in the provision of care.

Cooper H, Hedges LV.The Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1997.
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Presentation from July 2017 is the second in a series of educational forums on comparative effectiveness research that discussed federal funding levels, private sector leadership, regulatory barriers, dissemination and uptake of research results, and new areas for research.

Current listing of surveys and other relevant data suitable for epidemiologic research on alcohol.
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Joanna Briggs Institute..Adelaide, Australia. What's New; March 2008.

Aluminum is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon, and it is the most abundant metal, making up almost 9 percent of the earth's crust. Aluminum is found in plants, soil, water and air. Most plants have low quantities of aluminum, but a few are known to be aluminum accumulators, including some types of tea plants, grasses and orchids.

Higgins JPT, Green S (Eds)..The Cochrane Collaboration. March 2011.

Problem solving has a special importance in the study of mathematics. A primary goal of mathematics teaching and learning is to develop the ability to solve a wide variety of complex mathematics problems. Stanic and Kilpatrick (43) traced the role of problem solving in school mathematics and illustrated a rich history of the topic. To many mathematically literate people, mathematics is synonymous with solving problems -- doing word problems, creating patterns, interpreting figures, developing geometric constructions, proving theorems, etc. On the other hand, persons not enthralled with mathematics may describe mathematics activity as problem solving.

Little J, Higgins J (Eds)..Human Genome Epidemiology Network. 2006.

Aluminum is used in vaccines as an adjuvant. An adjuvant is vaccine component that boosts the immune response to the vaccine. Adjuvants allow for lesser quantities of the vaccine and fewer doses. The adjuvant effects of aluminum were discovered in 1926. Aluminum adjuvants are used in vaccines such as , , , , and , but they are not used in the live, viral vaccines, such as , and .

Printable aluminum in vaccines question and answer sheet:

Vaccines containing adjuvants are tested extensively in clinical trials before being licensed. Aluminum salts, monophosphoryl A (a detoxified bacterial component), and squalene (a compound of the body’s normal cholesterol synthesis pathway) are the only materials that can be used as adjuvants in the United States. The quantities of aluminum present in vaccines are low and are regulated by the .

3401 Civic Center Blvd.Philadelphia, PA 19104

When two people talk about mathematics problem solving, they may not be talking about the same thing. The rhetoric of problem solving has been so pervasive in the mathematics education of the 1980s and 1990s that creative speakers and writers can put a twist on whatever topic or activity they have in mind to call it problem solving! Every exercise of problem solving research has gone through some agony of defining mathematics problem solving. Yet, words sometimes fail. Most people resort to a few examples and a few nonexamples. Reitman (29) defined a problem as when you have been given the description of something but do not yet have anything that satisfies that description. Reitman's discussion described a problem solver as a person perceiving and accepting a goal without an immediate means of reaching the goal. Henderson and Pingry (11) wrote that to be problem solving there must be a goal, a blocking of that goal for the individual, and acceptance of that goal by the individual. What is a problem for one student may not be a problem for another -- either because there is no blocking or no acceptance of the goal. Schoenfeld (33) also pointed out that defining what is a problem is always relative to the individual.