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13/11/2017 · Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, ..

Marine endophytic actinomycetes assisted synthesis of ..

A mixed approach between biomimetic and fermentative strategies was developed using genetically modified E. coli to produce micro- or nano-particles (). PHAs biosynthesis and accumulation in cytoplasmatic granules by bacteria was used as a template for the synthesis of micro- and nano-particles in transformed E. coli (). PHAs are biodegradable polyesters accumulated in the stationary growth phase of many microorganisms, and their biosynthesis and molecular weight can be modulated by culture conditions (nitrogen, phosphorous and carbon source starvation) and by fermentation methodology (e.g. fed-batch). The PHAs genes were cloned and co-expressed with a fusion protein in E. coli (). The biosynthetic PHA-particle contained gold, silica and antibody binding domains ().

The preferred silver and gold nanoparticles are formed from various categories of microbes like bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes

slow as compared to other bacteria and fungi ..

Alternatively, the biochemical NP (bioNP) synthesis, beyond being environmentally friendly, is simple, cost-effective, more reproducible and with defined physicochemical properties. BioNPs can be classified into organic, inorganic, and hybrid. Among the bioNPs, most of macromolecules and cellular substructures are able to form NPs based on environmental conditions and sample treatment. The ability of biological structures to produce NPs was reported in many living organisms ranging from yeast, fungi, plants, algae, to bacteria (eubacteria, cyanobacteria), as recently reviewed (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). BioNPs can be synthesized from carbohydrates, lipids, DNA, proteins and also complex molecular mixtures. After cell lysis, sample treatments could involve many strategies commonly used for cell fractioning including solvents, salts, homogenization in the presence of surfactants, chaotropic agents, differential precipitation, and so on.

Fungi in Nanoparticle Synthesis: The fungi taking the center stage of studies on biological generation of nanopartilces because of the tolerance and bioaccumulation 30. The advantages of using fungi in their scale up process (e.g., using a thin solid substrate fermentation method). Fungi are efficient secretor of extra cellular enzymes it can easily obtain large scale production of enzymes. Further advantages of using fungal mediated green approach for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles include economic viability and ease in handling biomass.

easy biological nanoparticle synthesis

Silver nanoparticles can be prepared by bioreduction process using bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi etc very efficiently. The silver nanoparticles formed are having efficient antimicrobial activity.


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Biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ..

Green chemistry approaches emphasizing the use of biological entities such as plants, plants extract, bacteria, fungi, algae, actinomycetes, and viruses [8–10] for synthesis of gold nanoparticles is gaining significant importance due to its simplicity and immediate response towards the reducing agent [11] .

Biogenic Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles by ..

The present study demonstrates green process for the synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa AMB AS7 and the role of biosurfactant in enhancing the stability of AgNPs. An aqueous solution of silver nitrate was treated with both cell free broth and biomass of P. aeruginosa AMB AS7 which resulted in the synthesis of AgNPs. The nanometallic dispersions were characterized by surface plasmon spectrum measuring at a range of 280 to 700nm. The particle distribution analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) results showed the formation of AgNPs in the range of 30 – 80 nm. Further analysis carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the presence of functional groups from proteins and biosurfactant. The stability of AgNPs synthesised by both chemical and biological methods was analysed. Biological method of AgNPs synthesis showed remarkable stability. They were stable for 24 days whereas AgNPs synthesised by chemical method were stable for only 3 days. Also the influence of biosurfactant and chemical surfactant on the stability of AgNPs synthesized by chemical method was analyzed. The biosurfactant showed superior property (19 days) over the chemical surfactant (7 days) in terms of increasing the stability of AgNPs. The use of bacterium for nanoparticles synthesis and the influence of biosurfactant on the stability of AgNPs offer the benefits of eco-friendliness and amenability for large-scale production


Viruses in Nanoparticle Synthesis: Biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been extended to biological particles like viruses, proteins, peptides and enzymes. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and cowpea mosaic virus have been used for the mineralization of inorganic materials 35. Tobacco mosaic virus has shown to direct successfully the mineralization of sulphide and crystalline nanowires. One step further, peptides capable of nucleating Nano crystal growth have been identified from combinatorial screens and displayed on the surface of M13 bacteriophage 36.