A compensatory increase in trehalose synthesis in …
In Malaysia, species have been isolated from women diagnosed with vaginal candidiasis from a teaching hospital and it was found that was the predominant species among the strains isolated. The other species were , , , and . Re-infection from these yeasts varied among individuals either by identical, similar or different strains or species of (). In another report, the most predominantly isolated species from two hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2004 to 2009 was, followed by , , ,, and (). Other studies have reported that there is an increase in the number of disseminated candidiasis among acute leukaemia patients following chemotherapy (). reported that the incidence of candidemia within a one-year period of study was 13% among hospitalized patients in two teaching hospitals in Italy. Due to the strain resistance towards amphotericin B, some of these patients were given fluconazole, caspofungin and voriconazole for re-infections. In other cases of acute leukaemia patients, oral colonisation by species was found in 90% of the patient population. Treatment with ketoconazole among these patients showed little effect and complete eradication was only seen in 9 out of 20 patients treated for 5 days (). Related studies have shown that there were increased disseminated infections among bone marrow transplant patients and neutropenic patients by since a century ago (). The role of a diagnostic laboratory is important in the management of the fungal infections. The ability to identify the causative agent of the fungal infection to the genus, species or the strain, to a great extend, can determine the treatment for the infection and minimize treatment failure or recurrent infections.
lack of Hsp12p synthesis by increasing trehalose synthesis, ..
Rice bran solubles are one of the most nutrient-dense superfoods available today. They derive entirely from rice. Specifically, they are a highly concentrated soluble carbohydrate and lipid-rich component of stabilized rice bran (i.e., a non-chemically modified water-soluble fraction). They are also a complete, great-tasting, natural source of B-complex vitamins (i.e., thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6) and contain many other nutrients, including amino acids, antioxidants, essential fatty acids, and phytonutrients, Rice bran solubles are one of the world’s perfect whole foods, lacking only a few trace minerals (which provides through chlorella, nutritional yeast, spirulina, dulse, kelp, and other superfoods).
Yeast cells show an adaptive response to a mild heat shock, resulting in thermotolerance acquisition. This is accompanied by induction of heat-shock protein (hsp) synthesis and rapid accumulation of trehalose. Genetic approaches to determine the specific role of trehalose in heat-induced thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been hampered by the finding that deletion of TPS1, the gene encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, causes a variety of pleiotropic effects, including inability to grow on glucose-containing media. Here, we have studied a tps1 mutant of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that reportedly has no such growth defects. We show that tps1 mutants have a serious defect in heat shock-induced acquisition of thermotolerance if conditioned at highly elevated temperatures (40-42.5°C), which, in wild-type cells, prevent hsp but not trehalose synthesis. In contrast, hsp synthesis appears to become particularly important under conditions in which trehalose synthesis is either absent (in tps1 mutant strains) or not fully induced (conditioning at moderately elevated temperatures, i.e. 35°C). In addition, pka1 mutants deficient in cAMP- dependent protein kinase were examined. Unconditioned pka1 cells had low levels of trehalose but a high basal level of thermotolerance. It was found that pka1 mutant cells, contrary to wild-type cells, accumuluted large amounts of trehalose, even during a 50°C treatment. pka1 tps1 double mutants lacked this ability and showed reduced intrinsic thermotolerance, indicating a particularly important role for trehalose synthesis, which takes place during the challenging heat shock.
f Three pathways for trehalose biosynthesis in mycobacteria
The producer of the stabilized brown rice bran in uses a process that reliably inactivates the lipase in rice bran while retaining the rest of the food's chemistry. This is done with a mechanical extrusion process that forces the grain to deform as it squeezes through small openings in a metal die. The high rate of deformation during extrusion causes just the right amount of internal heating for the precise amount of time needed to inactivate the lipase. The result is a stabilized rice bran product that retains most of the vital nutrients of fresh rice bran, but has a shelf life measured in years rather than hours.
Three pathways for trehalose biosynthesis in mycobacteria, ..
Another very important issue is the effect of bacterial contamination on the yeast. A very common effect is flocculation of yeast cells. This kind of flocculation depends on physical contact between bacteria and yeast cells. Among lactic acid bacteria, , , and can cause yeast flocculation. When the ratio bacteria:yeast reaches 4.8:1, flocculation occurs. Furthermore, a fermentation assay carried out with three strains (baker's yeast, PE-2 and M-26), contaminated by , demonstrated that baker's yeast was the most sensible strain to bacterial contamination. Fermentations with baker's yeast presented the lowest rates of cell viability and the highest rates of bacterial multiplication. The results showed that dead cells release nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins and minerals that stimulate bacterial metabolism. In addition, PE-2 and M-26 showed the highest cell viability rates and lowest bacterial contamination by . Later, the high tolerance of industrial and tailored yeast strains to bacterial contamination by while the baker's yeast was more sensible.