Synthesis of Lanthanide(III) Chelates by Using 'Click' Chemistry.

Synthesis of Saccharide-Terminated Poly(ε-caprolactone) via Michael Addition and 'Click' Chemistry.
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Synthesis of Ferrocene-containing Polyacetylenes by Click Chemistry.

V.; Dufour, B.; Matyjaszewski, K., Synthesis of well-defined homo- and copolymers containing tetrazole units by combining atom transfer radical polymerization and "click" chemistry.

Synthesis of Block Copolymers by a Combination of Raft Polymerization with Click Chemistry.
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G., Click chemistry in materials synthesis.

As shown in the current study, AZT-water-treated animals had significant decreases in mtDNA fractional synthesis and in an index of absolute mitochondrial biogenesis rate.

Bringing Efficiency to Materials Synthesis: The Philosophy of Click Chemistry.
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Combination of Ring-Opening Polymerization and "Click" Chemistry for the Synthesis of an Amphiphilic Tadpole-Shaped Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Grafted by PEO.

Synthesis of a Fluorescence-labeled K30 Antigen Repeating Unit Using Click Chemistry.
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Practical Synthesis of AZT and AZDU from Xylose: …

To facilitate the discovery of lead compounds as anticancer reagents from marine nucleosides [–], the total synthesis of trachycladines A and trachycladines B are reported herein allowing to assemble their unique chemical structure for the first time.

First total synthesis of kipukasin A

Until recently, however, no simple, direct measurement technique for quantifying mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) synthesis in particular, had been available.

Synthesis of AZT-α-Borano-5′-Diphospho-Hexoses - …

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T), cause toxicities to numerous tissues, including the liver and vasculature. While much is known about hepatic NRTI toxicity, the mechanism of toxicity in endothelial cells is incompletely understood. Human aortic endothelial and HepG2 liver cells were exposed to 1 μM AZT or d4T for up to 5 weeks. Markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, NRTI phosphorylation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, and cytotoxicity were monitored over time. In endothelial cells, AZT significantly oxidized glutathione redox potential, increased total cellular and mitochondrial-specific superoxide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased lactate release, and caused cell death from weeks 3 through 5. Toxicity occurred in the absence of di- and tri-phosphorylated AZT and mtDNA depletion. These data show that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells occur with a physiologically relevant concentration of AZT, and require long-term exposure to develop. In contrast, d4T did not induce endothelial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or cytotoxicity despite the presence of d4T-triphosphate. Both drugs depleted mtDNA in HepG2 cells without causing cell death. Endothelial cells are more susceptible to AZT-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells, and AZT caused greater endothelial dysfunction than d4T because of its pro-oxidative effects.

ChemInform Abstract: Synthesis of AZT-α-Borano-5′-diphospho-hexoses

Stock market analysts predict that Burroughs Wellcome may be selling as much as $2 billion worth of AZT, under the brand name Retrovir, each year by the mid-1990s - matching Burroughs Wellcome's total sales for all its products last year.

Total Synthesis of the L-Hexoses

AMPDA was used as a biocatalyst in the enzymatic hydrolysis of adenosine 15. The reaction proceeded smoothly in the presence of AMPDA in phosphate buffer at pH 5.6 and 40 °C with 3% DMSO as a co-solvent. Adenosine 15 was enzymatically deaminated to give trachycladine B in almost quantitative yield. The reaction is a novel instance of the broad substrate tolerance of AMPDA and extends its usage in nucleoside chemistry. Therefore, trachycladine B was synthesized in 35.0% overall yield from 5-deoxy-1,2,3-tri-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranose (6).