This section gives the details of how you wentabout your project.

It is often a good idea to end the paper with a general statementof main message.

(iv) Use headings to organize the sections of your Introduction.

A second critical factor in changing attitudes toward behaviorism was the appearance, in 1919, of Watson's This was the first textbook to extend behavioristic analysis to human psychological function. In the first two chapters, Watson introduces students to his vision of psychology as an independent natural science. Emphasizing the importance of prediction and control of behavior and the necessity of a stimulus-response analysis, Watson lays the foundation for his later treatment by outlining the major categories of behavior (explicit and implicit, hereditary and acquired), arguing for a clear distinction between the molecular approach of physiology and behaviorism's molar concern with adjustments of the whole organism to complex situations, and providing an extended introduction to objective methodology.

They belong in the body of the paragraph or section, butnot as openers.

CHAPTER 7: Writing the Results Section

(Someday you may be surprised to find your professorhanding out copies of your paper to other students.)You may assume your reader is intelligent, but he reads only yourpaper, not your mind.

Chapter 9 is that for which Watson is perhaps best known. He argues that "early word habits are formed in much the same way as are other explicit habits" and that children eventually "make the transition from overt to whispered and then to implicit language...which [becomes] abbreviated, short-circuited and economized." These and other implicit responses (e.g., tracing with eyes, hands and fingers) serve as substitutes for other stimuli and constitute that which we generally mean by "thinking." He then analyzes the situations that elicit thinking (when an explicit adjustment is not readily at hand), the nature of thinking (trial and error), and the nature of the word as a stimulus. Although his discussion of the word as stimulus is sketchy at best, Watson's analysis (the same word response can both occur to different physical stimuli and elicit different responses) lay the groundwork for Weiss's later and more sophisticated discussion of the abstracting and generalizing function of language.


Eventually I decided toomit it from this version of the paper.

Sometimes the supervisor feels that the findings are important enoughfor the thesis to be published. The supervisor should have the raw dataif he/she is to write up the thesis. From my experience, MA or HBA studentsare not able to prepare a journal article on their own, but they can help,and will learn something in the process. A somewhat controversial topicis the order of authorship on the publication. My policy is to put thestudent's name first if the idea was largely the student's. On the otherhand, if the study is one of my ideas, which follows from my own researchprogram, then I become senior author. I have not encountered problems withthis policy which I think is fair and accurately reflects the contributionto the paper.

The RESULTS section should detail the analyses you plan to run

Again use the APA Manual for this section. Double check the accuracyof the references, since there is no excuse for sloppiness here. If thereare many errors it reflects poorly on you.

such data belong in the results section.

However, some supervisors desire an explicit statement of hypothesesand predictions. These can have the advantage of giving a focus to theResults and Discussion. The reason I dislike hypotheses and predictionsis that they create unnecessary personal involvement with the findings. For example, suppose you predict that A will affect B. This predictionis stated in your proposal for all to see. If you find A affects B, then you are inappropriately proud of being right. But, it you find no effect,then you become depressed, and write an apologetic Discussion. I wouldprefer you to distance yourself from predictions. Instead state that "Becausethe literature shows. . . about A, and because of the importance of B,it is important to explore whether A might have an effect on B."

Writing a Results and Discussion - Psychology …

Start out by identifying how your study intends to resolve the chaoswhich you identified in the previous section. For example, "The proposedstudy will examine the effectiveness of temperature biofeedback, under conditionsdesigned both to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment, and maximizethe opportunity to objectively detect these effects. Subjects will be randomlyassigned to...[here briefly describe your design] Measures will be taken...[heredescribe the other innovative aspects of your experiment] The proposedstudy should clarify three issues: (1) will .... "