Relationship between religion and science - Wikipedia
As noted, most studies on the relationship between science andreligion have focused on science and Christianity, with only a smallnumber of publications devoted to other religious traditions (e.g.,Brooke and Numbers 2011). Relatively few monographs pay attention tothe relationship between science and religion in non-Christian milieus(e.g., Judaism and Islam in Clark 2014). Since western science makesuniversal claims, it is easy to assume that its encounter with otherreligious traditions is similar to the interactions observed inChristianity. However, given different creedal tenets (e.g., in Hindutraditions God is usually not entirely distinct from creation, unlikein Christianity and Judaism), and because science has had distincthistorical trajectories in other cultures, one can expect disanalogiesin the relationship between science and religion in differentreligious traditions. To give a sense of this diversity, this sectionprovides a bird’s eye overview of science and religion inChristianity, Islam, and Hinduism.
The Religion and Science Conflict is Complex | Libere
In the seventeenth century, the explanation of the workings of naturein terms of elegant physical laws suggested the ingenuity of a divinedesigner. The design argument reached its peak not with WilliamPaley’s Natural Theology (1802/2006), which was a late voicein the debate on the design argument, but during the seventeenth andearly eighteenth century (McGrath 2011). For example, Samuel Clarke(cited in Schliesser 2012: 451) proposed an a posterioriargument from design by appealing to Newtonian science, callingattention to the “exquisite regularity of all the planets’motions without epicycles, stations, retrogradations, or any otherdeviation or confusion whatsoever”.
In the contemporary public sphere, the most prominent interactionbetween science and religion concerns evolutionary theory andcreationism/Intelligent Design. The legal battles (e.g., theKitzmiller versus Dover trial in 2005) and lobbying surrounding theteaching of evolution and creationism in American schools suggest thatreligion and science conflict. However, even if one were to focus onthe reception of evolutionary theory, the relationship betweenreligion and science is complex. For instance, in the United Kingdom,scientists, clergy, and popular writers, sought to reconcile scienceand religion during the nineteenth and early twentieth century, whereas the United States saw the rise of a fundamentalistopposition to evolutionary thinking, exemplified by the Scopes trialin 1925 (Bowler 2001, 2009).
Science and Christian Faith: Conflict or Cooperation
Another theological development that may have facilitated the rise ofscience was the Condemnation of Paris (1277), which forbade teachingand reading natural philosophical views that were consideredheretical, such as Aristotle’s physical treatises. As a result,the Condemnation opened up intellectual space to think beyond ancientGreek natural philosophy. For example, medieval philosophers such asJohn Buridan (fl. 14th c) held the Aristotelian belief thatthere could be no vacuum in nature, but once the idea of a vacuumbecame plausible, natural philosophers such as Evangelista Torricelli(1608–1647) and Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) could experimentwith air pressure and vacua (see Grant 1996, for discussion).
01/04/2003 · Science and Religion: Are They Compatible
Several historians (e.g., Hooykaas 1972) have argued that Christianity was instrumental to thedevelopment of western science. Peter Harrison (2009) thinks thedoctrine of original sin played a crucial role in this, arguing therewas a widespread belief in the early modern period that Adam, prior tothe fall, had superior senses, intellect, and understanding. As aresult of the fall, human senses became duller, our ability to makecorrect inferences was diminished, and nature itself became lessintelligible. Postlapsarian humans (i.e., humans after the fall) areno longer able to exclusively rely on their a priorireasoning to understand nature. They must supplement their reasoningand senses with observation through specialized instruments, such asmicroscopes and telescopes. As Robert Hooke wrote in the introductionto his Micrographia:
Between Religion and Science. Georges Lemaître, Pope …
Exclude God from the definition of science and, in one felldefinitional swoop, you exclude the greatest natural philosophers ofthe so-called scientific revolution—Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo,Boyle, and Newton (to name just a few). (2014: 42)
sometimes referred to as the "Conflict Thesis." ..
Christian authors in the field of science and religion continue todebate how these two books interrelate. Concordism is the attempt tointerpret scripture in the light of modern science. It is ahermeneutical approach to Bible interpretation, where one expects thatthe Bible foretells scientific theories, such as the Big Bang theoryor evolutionary theory. However, as Denis Lamoureux (2008: chapter 5)argues, many scientific-sounding statements in the Bible are false:the mustard seed is not the smallest seed, male reproductive seeds donot contain miniature persons, there is no firmament, and the earth isneither flat nor immovable. Thus, any plausible form of integratingthe books of nature and scripture will require more nuance andsophistication. Theologians such as John Wesley (1703–1791) haveproposed the addition of other sources of knowledge to scripture andscience: the Wesleyan quadrilateral (a term not coined by Wesleyhimself) is the dynamic interaction of scripture, experience(including the empirical findings of the sciences), tradition, andreason (Outler 1985).