Trafficking in Human Beings Into the European Union," The Hague.

Roma children continue to be trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced begging.

AfricaFiles | Causes and effects of human trafficking

The average daily calorie intake per capita was 2,100 in year 2005 in Nigeria, as against 3,300 for a developed country. In 1999, 30.7% under-five children had under-weight, with the figure decreasing only to 29% in 2003, when 49% had stunting and 14% were born with low birth-weight. Children with stunting were 18% in 2003 in Nigeria. Life expectancy at birth was 46.6 years in 2005, as against 77.8 years in an advanced country. Neo-natal mortality rate was as high as 48 per 1,000 live births in 2003 in Nigeria. Infant mortality rate is 133 per 1,000 live births, as compared with 41 per 1,000 live births in 1970 and 9per 1,000 live births in 2005 in a developed nation. Under-five mortality rate was 257 per 1,000 live births in 2003 in Nigeria, as compared with 54 per 1,000 live births in 1970 and 11 per 1,000 live births in 2005 in an advanced country. In 2005, maternal mortality rate was 110 per 100,000 live births in Nigeria. Reported cases of deaths from preventable diseases increased from 11,854 in 2006 to 15680 in 2007 ( and ). The reasons are poor nutrition, unsafe water, poor sanitation, uninformed parents and lack of immunization. Births attended by skilled personnel stood at 35% in 2005 in Nigeria, as compared with 95% in a developed country. There is a doctor for 410 persons in advanced countries, but for 2,536 persons in Nigeria ().

[14] Rasheed Olaniyi, “No Way Out: The Trafficking of Women in Nigeria,” np. 55 (2003): 45.

Combating human trafficking in South Africa: a …

The federal government considers St. Louis one of the top 20 human trafficking jurisdictions, according to Wagner and local activists. The Polaris Project, a Washington, D.C., rescue organization for people trying to escape human trafficking and sexual slavery, reports that calls to its hotlines have risen by 259 percent since 2007.

One measure, sponsored by Rep. Ann Wagner, R-Ballwin, may turn out to be the most controversial. Her Stop Advertising Victims of Exploitation act would criminalize advertising of sex with people, including children, held in human trafficking or sexual slavery.

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The Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act (JVTA) (S. 1738) provides funding and protections for victims of human trafficking here in the United States. It is the ONLY comprehensive legislation that provides funding for critical services victims need to heal and training for law enforcement so that they can better respond to victims and identify and prosecute traffickers.

Welcome – Cambridge Education - Mott MacDonald

Girls are still subject to and victims of, harmful traditional practices, like Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). They are often withdrawn from school at the slightest excuse, as a result of the limited value put on educating the girl-child, compared to the boy. Yet, abounding evidences show that educating women lead to enhanced family income, health and hygiene, child education and wholesome up-bringing, as well as reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates. The patriarchal society leaves women significantly disadvantaged. In several areas of Nigeria, widow and female disinheritance practices represent the most blatant violation of the family and individual rights of the woman and girl-child. Increasing and widening poverty, along with certain cultural traits, has driven millions of children into types of child labour that are exploitative, hazardous and prejudicial to their welfare and development. There is rapid spread of street children, child begging, child trafficking, child prostitution and child abandonment. Newly born children are abandoned in public places, such as markets, toilets, taxis and hospitals, by unwed young mothers fearing disgrace and stigmatization (; ).

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Development is about human beings - child and adult, male and female. Sustainable development is all about equity, defined as equality of opportunities for well-being, as well as about comprehensiveness of objectives (). Although, conventions on child and women rights are ratified and widely vaunted in Nigeria by the political leaders, commitments are lacking. National statutes are replete with provisions aimed at protecting children and women, but in reality, they are at variance with local realities and practices at the community level. The tripartite system of statutory, customary and religious laws that operate in tandem with societal norms and values and coupled with lack of legal literacy, constitute serious obstacle to development of women and children. Recent situation analysis of children and women in Nigeria, shows that in every sector, women’s low status in the society is one of the major underlying causes of the worsening condition of children and women. Records abound regarding the violation of the rights of women and children in Nigeria. These jeopardize, rather than enhance, sustainable human development. Women and children are often marginalized in development in Nigeria. Discrimination against women and children inform social exclusion and poverty. The rights of women and children thus recklessly violated lead to frustration, apathy, violence and lop-sided development and underdevelopment (, ; ; ; ).

Global Slavery Index - 45.8 million people are enslaved …

The Trafficking in Persons Report is “a call to action to governments and citizens around the world to uncover modern slavery and hold it accountable to identify the victims, and bring their abusers to justice. There cannot be impunity for those who traffic in human beings. It must end,” Secretary of State Kerry says in remarks at the release of the 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report in Washington.