Nutritional management and disease prevention in …
The ocean environment is unique in many ways. It offers large-scale aquatic habitats, diverse bottom topography, and a rich diversity of species and ecosystems in water in various climate zones that are found nowhere else. One of the major differences in terms of the effect of climate change on the oceans compared to land is ocean acidification. Anthropogenic CO2 enters the ocean and chemical reactions turn some of it to carbonic acid, which acidifies the water. This mirrors what is also happening inside organisms once they take up the additional CO2. Marine species that are dependent on calcium carbonate, like shellfish, seastars and corals, may find it difficult to build their shells and skeletons under ocean acidification. In general, animals living and breathing in water like fish, squid, and mussels, have between five and 20 times less CO2 in their blood than terrestrial animals, so CO2 enriched water will affect them in different and potentially more dramatic ways than species that breathe in air. Consider also the unique impacts of climate change on ocean dynamics. The ocean has layers of warmer and colder water, saltier or less saline water, and hence less or more dense water. Warming of the ocean and the addition of more freshwater at the surface through ice melt and higher precipitation increases the formation of more stable layers stratified by density, which leads to less mixing of the deeper, denser, and colder nutrient-rich layers with the less dense nutrient-limited layers near the surface. With less mixing, respiration by organisms in the mid-water layers of stratified oceans will produce oxygen-poor waters, so-called oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Large, more active fish can’t live in these oxygen poor waters, while more simple specialized organisms with a lower need for oxygen will remain, and even thrive in the absence of predation from larger species. Therefore, the community of species living in hypoxic areas will shift. State-of-the-art ecosystem models build on empirical observations of past climate changes and enable development of estimates of how ocean life may react in the future. One such projection is a large shift in the distribution of commercially important fish species to higher latitudes and reduced harvesting potential in their original areas. But producing detailed projections, e.g. what species and how far they will shift, is challenging because of the number and complexity of interactive feedbacks that are involved. At the moment, the uncertainties in modeling and complexities of the ocean system even prevent any quantification of how much of the present changes in the oceans is being caused by anthropogenic climate change or natural climate variability, and how much by other human activities such as fishing, pollution, etc. It is known, however, that the resilience of marine ecosystems to adjust to climate change impacts is likely to be reduced by both the range of factors and their rate of change. The current rate of environmental change is much faster than most climate changes in the Earth’s history, so predictions from longer term geological records may not be applicable if the changes occur within a few generations of a species. A species that had more time to adapt in the past may simply not have time to adapt under future climate change.
IPCC 2013 FAQs - Metlink Teaching Weather and Climate
The fundamental information required for climate risk management is to understand the climate events that put the system being studied at risk and what is the likelihood of these arising. The starting point for assembling this information is a good knowledge of the climate of the recent past including any trends in aspects of these events (e.g. their frequency or intensity). It is also be important to consider that many aspects of the climate are changing, to understand how the future projected changes may influence the characteristics of these events and that these changes will, in general, be regionally variable. However, it should be noted that over the coming 20 years the magnitude of projected changes may not be sufficient to have a large influence the frequency and intensity of these events. Finally, it is also essential to understand which other factors influence the vulnerability of the system. These may be important determinants in managing the risks and also if they are changing at faster rates than the climate then changes in the latter become a secondary issue. For managing climate risks over a 20-year time horizon it is essential to identify the climate variables which the system at risk is vulnerable to. It could be a simple event such as extreme precipitation or a tropical cyclone or a more complex sequence of a late onset of the monsoon coupled with prolonged dry spells within the rainy season. The current vulnerability of the system can then be estimated from historical climate data on these variables including any information on trends in the variables. These historical data would give a good estimate of the vulnerability assuming the record was long enough to provide a large sample of the relevant climate variables and that the reasons for any trends, e.g. clearly resulting from climate change, were understood. It should be noted that in many regions sufficiently long historical records of the relevant climate variables are often not available. It is also important to recognize that many aspect of the climate of the next 20 years will be different from the past. Temperatures are continuing to rise with consequent increases in evaporation and atmospheric humidity and reductions in snow amount and snow season length in many regions. Average precipitation is changing in many regions with both increases and decreases and there is a general tendency for increases in extreme precipitation observed over land areas. There is a general consensus amongst climate projections that further increases in heavy precipitation will be seen as the climate continues to warm and more regions will see significant increases or decreases in average precipitation. In all cases the models project a range of changes for all these variables which are generally different for different regions. Many of these changes may often be relatively small compared to their natural variations but it is the influence of these changes on the specific climate variables which the system is at risk from that is important. Thus information needs to be derived from the projected climate changes on how the characteristics of these variables, e.g. the likelihood of their occurrence or magnitude, will change over the coming 20 years. These projected future characteristics in some cases may be indistinguishable from those historically observed but in other cases some or all models will project significant changes. In the latter situation, the effect of the projected climate changes will then result in a range of changes in either the frequency or magnitude of the climate event, or both. The climate risk management strategy would then need to adapt to accounting for either a greater range or changed magnitude of risk. This implies that in these cases a careful analysis of the implications of projected changes for the specific temporal and spatial characteristic of the climate variables relevant to the system at risk is required.
There is general consensus among scientists that climate change significantly affects marine ecosystems and may have profound impacts on future ocean biodiversity. Recent changes in the distribution of species as well as species richness within some marine communities and the structure of those communities have been attributed to ocean warming. Projected changes in physical and biogeochemical drivers such as temperature, CO2 content and acidification, oxygen levels, the availability of nutrients, and the amount of ocean covered by ice, will affect marine life. Overall, climate change will lead to large-scale shifts in the patterns of marine productivity, biodiversity, community composition and ecosystem structure. Regional extinction of species that are sensitive to climate change will lead to a decrease in species richness. In particular, the impacts of climate change on vulnerable organisms such as warm water corals are expected to affect associated ecosystems, such as coral reef communities. Ocean primary production of the phytoplankton at the base of the marine food chain is expected to change but the global patterns of these changes are difficult to project. Existing projections suggest an increase in primary production at high latitudes such as the Arctic and the Southern Ocean (because the amount of sunlight available for photosynthesis of phytoplankton goes up as the amount of water covered by ice decreases). Decreases are projected for ocean primary production in the tropics and at mid-latitudes because of reduced nutrient supply. Alteration of the biology, distribution, and seasonal activity of marine organisms will disturb food web interactions such as the grazing of copepods (tiny crustaceans) on planktonic algae, another important foundational level of the marine food chain. Increasing temperature, nutrient fluctuations, and human-induced eutrophication may support the development of harmful algal blooms in coastal areas. Similar effects are expected in upwelling areas where wind and currents bring colder and nutrient rich water to the surface. Climate change may also cause shifts in the distribution and abundance of pathogens such as those that cause cholera. Most climate change scenarios foresee a shift or expansion of the ranges of many species of plankton, fish and invertebrates towards higher latitudes, by tens of kilometres per decade, contributing to changes in species richness and altered community composition. Organisms less likely to shift to higher latitudes because they are more tolerant of the direct effects of climate change or less mobile may also be affected because climate change will alter the existing food webs on which they depend. In polar areas, populations of species of invertebrates and fish adapted to colder waters may decline as they have no place to go. Some of those species may face local extinction. Some species in semi-enclosed seas such as the Wadden Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, also face higher risk of local extinction because land boundaries around those bodies of water will make it difficult for those species to move laterally to escape waters that may be too warm.