Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Social Synthesis Report
Jointly established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prepares comprehensive and up-to-date assessments of policy-relevant scientific, technical, and socio-economic information relevant for understanding the scientific basis of climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC Collection at the ESPP Archives spans certain work of the Second through Fifth Assessment Report cycles; the 1990 First Assessment Report (FAR, “AR1”) was generated via an earlier mechanism, and no records were maintained by a dedicated technical support unit (TSU).()
Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Synthesis Report
Uncertainties about the future impacts of climate change obviate definitive conclusions about future adaptation actions and insights for specific situations cannot be generalised. Economic precepts suggest that governments should limit intervention to cases of genuine market failure, such as the provision of information on likely impacts of climate change including at the local level, or to support for people affected by uninsurable events. But any role as ‘insurer of last resort’ needs to be circumscribed by rigorous social cost-benefit analysis to ensure that government intervention is beneficial, in the context of the need to adapt to climatic changes. Although the phenomenon of ‘government failure’ is generally ignored in the adaptation literature (and often by policy makers), it too can stymie efficient adaptation.
For an in-depth discussion of this topic, see Section 3.5 of Chapter 4: Energy of our report, as well as the NCE background paper on which it is based: Lazarus, M., Tempest, K., Klevnäs, P. and Korsbakken, J.I., 2014. Natural Gas: Guardrails for a Potential Climate Bridge. New Climate Economy contributing paper. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
06/06/2011 · This is followed by a synthesis of key ..
A central insight of this report is that many of the policy and institutional reforms needed to revitalise growth and improve well-being over the next 15 years, can also help reduce climate risk. In most economies, there are a range of market, government and policy failures that can be corrected, as well as new technologies, business models and other options that countries at various stages of development can use to improve economic performance and climate outcomes together. These opportunities exist in the short (less than 5 years), medium (5–15 years) and long term (greater than 15 years), as the various chapters of this report show. They require good policy design and implementation across three main drivers of change:
Downloadable! No abstract is available for this item.
The conclusion that growth and climate goals can be mutually reinforcing is not surprising in the long run, beyond 15 years ahead. As the impacts of climate change grow larger, the potential harm to economies will increase. What this report shows, however, is that low-carbon policies can also generate strong growth in the medium term (5–15 years), provided that governments make the necessary policy and investment choices. Building more compact cities with good public transport, for example, not only reduces GHGs, but also allows people to move faster and more efficiently from home, to jobs, to shops and services; it reduces traffic congestion and air pollution, and it provides new business opportunities around transport hubs. Harnessing domestic renewable energy resources can boost energy security and reduce trade deficits. There is growing evidence that clean-tech R&D has particularly high spillover benefits, comparable to those from robotics, information technology (IT) and nanotechnologies.
New Climate Economy- Synthesis Report | weADAPT
Many of the investments and policies discussed in this report will be particularly valuable to the poorest and most vulnerable people in developing countries: smallholder farmers whose crops are increasingly threatened by land degradation and climate change; the 350 million people who live in (and often depend on) forests; the billions who lack modern cooking facilities, electricity or both; and low-income urban residents who rely on public transport. The low-carbon economy can help reduce poverty and raise living standards in many ways, such as through “climate-smart” agriculture, payments for ecosystem services, off-grid renewable energy solutions, and bus rapid transit (BRT) systems, among many others.
17/09/2014 · New Climate Economy- Synthesis Report
It is very difficult to estimate the economic costs of such effects, as there are many uncertainties. But the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that the likely costs of just 2°C of global warming would be of the order of 0.5–2% of global GDP by the middle of the century, even if strong adaptation measures are taken. Once warming has proceeded beyond this, the costs will rise further – though the IPCC finds there is too much uncertainty to estimate reliably by how much. What the IPCC does confirm is that climate change impacts will affect the world’s poorest people the most; they are already doing so. But countries at all income levels face serious climate risks, as recent studies of the United States (among others) have shown.