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Two-source hypothesis - Wikipedia

JSH: Jerusalem School Hypothesis (), a development of Robert Lindsey's hypothesis (). Lukan Priority with dependence of all three upon an and Luke upon a Online publication: ; by David Bivin; by David Bivin; with Eric Hovee.

The two-source hypothesis (or 2SH) ..

Ch. G. Wilke (),Bruno Bauer (), Ronald V. Huggins (). Markan priority, but the Double Tradition material is the result of Matthew's copying of Luke.

Lachmann, also a proponent of the Fragmentary Hypothesis, subdivided the narrative portions of the synoptics into roughly nine separate sections and investigating how these sections were eventually arranged in the individual gospels. Lachmann concluded that the Mark's order best reflected a relatively fixed oral sequence for these sections and found reasons for Matthew and Luke to depart from this fixed oral sequence (, ET : 376-378 = : 119-131).


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Recent studies have shown how fruitful aredaction-critical approach to Q can be. At firstsight such work may appear to be extremelyhypothetical, being based on what some would argue isa very questionable presupposition (the very existenceof Q as a single document). However, the verydistinctiveness of the Q material as shown by therecent redaction-critical studies of Q is in itself anindication that this material did exist as a separateentity at some stage in the development of thesynoptic tradition. Theories about the theology of Q,if successful, may therefore provide support for thehypothesis of the existence of Q. Q may also alert usto the great variety within primitive Christianity. It shows us a version of the Christian faith which isperhaps less cross centered than, say, Paul or Mark;but it is nonetheless real for that.

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For the followers of Jesus whose tradition is represented in the original composition of Q, the turning point of the ages is the proclamation of Jesus. In the sayings of Jesus, his followers find the continuation of this announcement. These sayings are not only reassurance of the eschatological moment, they are also the rule of life for the community of the new age insofar as Jesus continues to speak in sayings of wisdom and in rules for the community. Jesus may indeed have been viewed as the heavenly Wisdom. This is especially evident in Q 10:21-22 which defines the relationship of Jesus to the Father in terms of the established sapiental concept of Wisdom and God. If Q 13:34-35, the lament over Jerusalem, should belong to the original composition of Q, Jesus is also the one who sends Wisdom's envoys.

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The Farrer Hypotheis (FH) is also a Markan priority solution, but dispenses with Q as unnecessary, holding that Luke's use of Matthew is sufficiently plausible (; ; ; cf. ; ; ). The Farrer Hypothesis is the leading contender to the 2SH in England and is beginning to have some in-roads in North America.

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For example, a few scholars explain the minor agreements by Luke's use of Matthew in addition to Q and Mark (3SH). The problem is that the modern argument for Q requires Matthew and Luke to be independent, so the 3SH raises more questions than it solves, namely, how to establish Q is Luke is dependent on Matthew. Other scholars keep Q while acknowledging the force of the minor agreements to attribute the minor agreements to a proto-Mark, such as the Ur-Markus in the Markan Hypothesis (MkH) that was adapted by Mark independently from its use by Matthew and Luke. Stlle other scholars feel that the character of the minor agreements suggest that they are due to a revision of our Mark, called deutero-Mark. In this case, both Matthew and Luke are dependent on deutero-Mark, which did not survive the ages.