Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene

Substituting a methyl group gives methylbenzene.

:88-72-2 1-Methyl-2-nitrobenzene

Effects of controlled 8-h exposures to pure toluene on3 human subjectsa,b---------------------------------------------------------------------Concentration Number of Effects exposures---------------------------------------------------------------------0 mg/m3 7 no complaints or objective symptoms, except occasional moderate tiredness toward the end of each exposure, which was attributed to lack of physical exercise, unfavorable illumination, and monotonous noise from fans 188 mg/m3 2 drowsiness with a very mild headache in 1 subject; no after effects375 mg/m3 4 moderate fatigue and sleepiness (3), and a slight headache on one occasion (1)750 mg/m3 3 fatigue (3), muscular weakness (2), confusion (2), impaired coordination (2), paraesthesia of the skin (2), repeated headache (1), and nausea (1) at the end of the exposure; in several instances, the pupils were dilated, pupillary light reflex was impaired, and the fundus of the eye was was engorged; after-effects included fatigue, general confusion, moderate insomnia, and restless sleep in all 3 subjects1125 mg/m3 2 severe fatigue (3), headache (2), muscular weakness and incoordination (1), and slight pallor of the eyeground (2); after-effects included fatigue (3) and insomnia (1) 1500 mg/m3 2 fatigue and mental confusion (3), headache, paraesthesia of the skin, muscular weakness, dilated pupils, and pale eyeground (2); after effects were fatigue (3), skin paraesthesia (1), headache (1), and insomnia (2)---------------------------------------------------------------------Table 13.

: 99-08-11-Methyl-3-nitrobenzene

The reason for the 2,4- directing effect of the methyl group in methylbenzene lies in the fact that the 2- and 4- isomers form faster than the 3- isomer. However, in this case, the 3- isomer is the most thermodynamically stable of the three. If you raise the temperature, or allow more time, the equilibria set up favour the most stable product.

N2 - Spherical MCM-41 mesoporous materials, containing different amounts of nickel were prepared by single-step synthesis and by wet impregnation. The catalysts were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and IR spectroscopy. It was shown that the reducibility, as well as, the catalytic activity of the modified samples in the hydrogenation of toluene were affected by the method of catalyst preparation and the pre-treatment conditions. The paper discusses the relations between the pre-treatment conditions, such as, reducing gas, reduction temperature and rate of heating, and the reducibility of the nickel oxide phase.


The technical product may contain small amounts of benzene.

The starting material is methylbenzene (toluene). When it reacts with mixed acid (nitric and sulfuric), two isomers of nitromethylbenzene (NMB) are the main products.

(1968a); toluene content may be higher depending on tobacco type.

If this mixture is nitrated further, a mixture of dinitromethylbenzenes is produced. In industry they are known by their trivial names, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT). 80% is 2,4-DNT and 20% is 2,6-DNT:

Toluene decreased the toxic effect of benzene on bone marrow.

In turn, the amines, known commercially as Toluene Diamines or TDA, are heated with carbonyl chloride (phosgene) to produce the diisocyanates and this process can be carried out in the liquid phase with chlorobenzene as a solvent at about 350 K:

Benzene and its derivatives in the rat.

It is expensive to produce this mixture in different proportions. It means purifying the mixture of the nitromethylbenzenes, NMB, by very careful distillation.

(1927) The relation toxicity of benzol and its higher homologues.

The polyols used are either hydroxyl-terminated polyethers (in about 90% of total polyurethane manufacture) or hydroxyl-terminated polyesters. They have been developed to have the necessary reactivity with the isocyanate that will be used and to produce polyurethanes with specific properties.

(1968b) Skin absorption of toluene, styrene, and xylene by man.

The choice of polyol, especially the number of reactive hydroxyl groups per polyol molecule and the size and flexibility of its molecular structure, ultimately control the degree of cross-linking between molecules. This has an important effect on the mechanical properties of the polymer.