Efficient Synthesis of Nanostructured Poly(aniline-co ..
It was soon realized that in the diazo reaction different combinations of atomic groupings could be introduced. The combinations seemed infinite and many thousands of experiments were undertaken. Not many commercial azo dyes resulted, but those that were successful made massive contributions to the balance sheets and fueled the demand for more research. New intermediates were introduced, including aniline in which amino group hydrogens had been substituted, and hydroxy and amino derivatives of naphthalene. When the amino compounds of toluene were introduced redder dyes were created.
electrolytes on the electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline, poly ..
In May 1917, Schoellkopf, William Beckers Aniline & Chemicals Works (founded in Brooklyn during 1912), Century Colors Corporation of Nutley, New Jersey and the Benzol Products Company of Marcus Hook, formed the National Aniline & Chemical Company (NACCO). (Benzol formed in 1910, was jointly owned by the Barrett Manufacturing Co., largest distributor and distiller of tar products, the General Chemical Co., manufacturer of acids, and the Semet-Solvay Co., famed for its alkalis). Standard Aniline Products of Wappinger Falls, New York, was soon incorporated, as were facilities of Barrett, General Chemical, and Semet-Solvay. Together they formed a fully integrated network for coal tar products, intermediates, acids, alkalis and dyes, with a combined annual output of 16,000 tons. . . At Deepwater Point, New Jersey, E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., with technical help from Levinstein, began production of indigo in 1917. The United States entered the Great War, and the Trading with the Enemy Act was passed on 6 October 1917, which gave further impetus to the growth of an American dye industry. Thereafter the Federal Trade Commission began to issue licenses for German patents through the Chemical Foundation Incorporated. Indigo and sulfur blacks were the most important products manufactured in the United States.
The chemical copolymerization of 2-methyl aniline with aniline and 2-aminobenzoic acid has been performed by chemical and inverse emulsion polymerization. 2-methyl aniline–aniline copolymer and 2- methyl aniline–co–2-aminobenzoic acid were synthesized at different molar ratios and at different temperatures. The copolymers of 2-methyl aniline with aniline show a greater resemblance to the poly(2- methyl aniline) due to the higher amounts of 2- methyl aniline in the copolymer, this lead to an increase in the solubility, but a lowering in the conductivity. The synthesis of 2-methyl aniline–2-aminobenzoic acid copolymer show high yield and conductivity values at room temperature compared to those synthesized at 0 and 60OC due to higher rate of polymerization of poly (2- methyl aniline) at room temperature. The characterization of the copolymers was investigated using a number of techniques including FTIR, UV–Vis, conductivity and elemental analysis.
Polyaniline nanofibers - Wikipedia
Abstract-A novel copolymer, poly (4-vinyl pyridine-co-aniline) [poly (4VP-co-Ani)] has been synthesised. Formation of copolymer was simple and readily achieved at room temperature. Poly (4VP-co-Ani) was synthesized electrochemically using a conventional three-electrode system. Redox processes were studied with cyclic voltammetry (CV). Effect of pH on the electro copolymerization process was also investigated. Acidic medium was favoured for efficient polymerization. Result of electrochemical and spectroscopic analyses were discussed at length. FT-IR spectroscopy has indicated that traits from both 4-vinyl pyridine and aniline were coherently present in the copolymer structure. Since both Ani and 4VP have been known for their abilities to incorporate metal ions in their homopolymeric chains, the poly (4VP-co-Ani) has been utilised as a membrane for cadmium ion selective electrodes(ISE).
Preparation of Poly Aniline by Chemical Oxidative …
--poly(methacrylic acid-aniline) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel was prepared by a two-step aqueous polymerization method. First, poly(methacrylic acid) (poly(MAA)) chains were graft co-polymerized onto a (Gg) backbone via free radical polymerization. Different reaction conditions were optimized in order to incorporate maximum water uptake capacity of the synthesized hydrogel. The synthesized hydrogel network showed a pH-dependent swelling behavior. Second, aniline (ANI) monomer was penetrated through the preformed Gg--poly(MAA) network by simple oxidative polymerization method. The homogeneity and distribution of different ions of the cross-linked hydrogels were investigated by the time-of-flight–secondary-ion mass spectrometry chemical imaging technique, and a correlation analysis by color overlay and scatter plot technique. The resulting cross-linked hydrogels’ structure, morphology, and thermal behavior were investigated. Biodegradation studies of the cross-linked hydrogel samples were carried out by composting soil test for a period of 60 days. The evidence for biodegradability has been confirmed by carrying out the scanning electron microscopy technique. The release profiles of the hydrogel networks were investigated through amoxicillin trihydrate model drug under different pH conditions at 37 °C. Drug release through the Gg--poly(MAA) matrix was found to show non-Fickian behavior at pH 2.2 and 7.0, whereas, a Fickian mechanism was exhibited at pH 9.2. On the other hand, Gg--poly(MAA-IPN-ANI) matrix exhibited Fickian behavior at each pH media. The hydrogel networks showed less release in acidic and neutral media than in basic media, suggesting that hydrogels may be suitable drug carriers for colon specific controlled release of drug delivery in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Synthesis of polyaniline - SlideShare
While the oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate is slow and takes over several months, the addition of a small amount of phenylenediamine, 1 mol % relative to aniline, shortens the reaction time to a few hours and, with higher concentrations of -phenylenediamine, even to tens of minutes.