Description: Bio fact sheet, Protein Synthesis - Nucleic Acids

Protein synthesis I - Nucleic Acids Proteins are large, ..

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis ..

FIGURE 2 DNA polymerization reaction. (A) According to the base pairing rules, a deoxythymidinetriphosphate (dTTP) is added at the 3′-OH end of the top strand through a transesterification reaction catalyzed by a DNA polymerase. (B) Two units of DNA polymerase form a heterodimer complex to carry out replication in a semi-conservative way. Because the reaction goes only in the 5′ ^ 3′ direction, one side (the leading strand) is synthesized continuously, while the other (the lagging strand) consists of short DNA fragments (Okazaki fragment). DNA replication is initiated by an RNA primer (waved line) which is synthesized by a primase. There are a number of accessory but essential proteins besides the polymerase unit.

Home › Create › Quizzes › Nucleic Acid › Nucleic Acids And Protein Synthesis Nucleic Acids And ..

Nucleic Acids, DNA Replication and Protein ..

AB - Proteins which bind to nucleic acids and regulate their structure and functions are numerous and exceptionally important. Such proteins employ a variety of strategies for recognition of the relevant structural elements in their nucleic acid substrates, some of which have been shown to involve rather subtle interactions which might have been difficult to design from first principles. In the present study, we have explored the preparation of proteins containing unnatural amino acids having nucleobase side chains. In principle, the introduction of multiple nucleobase amino acids into the nucleic acid binding domain of a protein should enable these modified proteins to interact with their nucleic acid substrates using Watson-Crick and other base pairing interactions. We describe the synthesis of five alanyl nucleobase amino acids protected in a fashion which enabled their attachment to a suppressor tRNA, and their incorporation into each of two proteins with acceptable efficiencies. The nucleobases studied included cytosine, uracil, thymine, adenine and guanine, i.e. the major nucleobase constituents of DNA and RNA. Dihydrofolate reductase was chosen as one model protein to enable direct comparison of the facility of incorporation of the nucleobase amino acids with numerous other unnatural amino acids studied previously. The Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I was chosen as a representative DNA binding protein whose mode of action has been studied in detail.

and for a discussion of the role played by nucleic acids in protein synthesis, ..

The central dogma of molecular biology is that information is transferred from DNA to RNA to proteins. The proteins (which include the enzymes and structural components of cells) are directly responsible for most cellular activities and functions. The information needed for all functions of all organisms is stored in the genomic DNA sequence, which contains discrete units defined as genes. Each gene encodes a protein whose function and activity are determined by its primary sequence. The discovery of colinearity of the DNA nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence of the encoded polypeptide in prokaryotes and their viruses led to the discovery of the genetic code which postulates that a three-nucleotide sequence in DNA, called a codon, is responsible for insertion of a specific amino acid in the polypeptide chain during its synthesis.

which are nucleic acids and proteins.


proteins and nucleic acids are not similar in structure.

New Substructure Filters for Removal of Pan Assay Interference Compounds PAINS from Screening Libraries and for Their Exclusion in Bioassays Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide. RNA interference RNAi is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.

(deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins

N2 - Proteins which bind to nucleic acids and regulate their structure and functions are numerous and exceptionally important. Such proteins employ a variety of strategies for recognition of the relevant structural elements in their nucleic acid substrates, some of which have been shown to involve rather subtle interactions which might have been difficult to design from first principles. In the present study, we have explored the preparation of proteins containing unnatural amino acids having nucleobase side chains. In principle, the introduction of multiple nucleobase amino acids into the nucleic acid binding domain of a protein should enable these modified proteins to interact with their nucleic acid substrates using Watson-Crick and other base pairing interactions. We describe the synthesis of five alanyl nucleobase amino acids protected in a fashion which enabled their attachment to a suppressor tRNA, and their incorporation into each of two proteins with acceptable efficiencies. The nucleobases studied included cytosine, uracil, thymine, adenine and guanine, i.e. the major nucleobase constituents of DNA and RNA. Dihydrofolate reductase was chosen as one model protein to enable direct comparison of the facility of incorporation of the nucleobase amino acids with numerous other unnatural amino acids studied previously. The Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I was chosen as a representative DNA binding protein whose mode of action has been studied in detail.

Nucleic Acid and Protein Research at Rockefeller University

The mRNA is read out by ribosomes, the ribonucleo-protein complex which functions as the factory for protein synthesis. The codons are recognized as blocks because they code for specific amino acids. Thus, the linear polypeptide sequence is determined by the linear mRNA sequence.