The preparation of m-dinitrobenzene
Dunlap (1981) reported that most of the production of aniline and other substituted nitrobenzenes from nitrobenzene goes into the manufacture of various plastic monomers and polymers (50%) and rubber chemicals (27%), with a smaller proportion into the synthesis of hydroquinones (5%), dyes and intermediates (6%), drugs (3%), pesticides and other specialty items (9%).
Synthesis of 3-NITROANILINE (m-nitroaniline) - …
Lewalter J & Ellrich D (1991) Nitroaromatic compounds (nitrobenzene, -nitrotoluene, -nitrochlorobenzene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, -dinitrobenzene, 1-nitronaphthalene, 2-nitronaphthalene, 4-nitrobiphenyl). Anal Hazard Subst Biol Mater, 3: 207–215.
In conclusion, most of the effects of nitrobenzene on the immune system in these studies can be explained by the increased cellularity of the spleen, although the new cells entering the spleen did not respond to mitogens or allogeneic cells. A degree of immunosuppression was evidenced by a diminished IgM response to sheep red blood cells, a finding that cannot be explained by an increase in spleen cells lacking immune functional capacity. Nitrobenzene at all doses stimulated the bone marrow, with increases in cells per femur, DNA synthesis and granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming unit stem cells per femur. Host resistance to microbial or viral infection was not markedly affected by nitrobenzene, although there was a trend towards increased susceptibility in cases in which T-cell function contributes to host defence (Burns et al., 1994).
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Based on air studies and on estimates of releases during manufacture, only populations in the vicinity of manufacturing activities (i.e., producers and industrial consumers of nitrobenzene for subsequent synthesis) and petroleum refining plants are likely to have any significant exposure to nitrobenzene (see section 5.1). However, consideration of possible groundwater (see section 5.1.2) and soil contamination (see section 5.1.4) and uptake of nitrobenzene by plants (see section 4.3.2) expands the population with the potential for higher exposures to those people living in and around abandoned hazardous waste sites.
M dinitrobenzene synthesis essay - Raleigh Limited …
During industrial processing, most nitrobenzene is retained in closed systems for use in further synthesis, predominantly of aniline, but also of substituted nitrobenzenes and anilines. Losses during production of nitrobenzene and during its subsequent use in closed systems are likely to be low; when it is used as a solvent, however, emissions are likely to be higher (e.g., US EPA, 1984) (see also sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.3).
M dinitrobenzene synthesis essay - MOST nezavisnih …
Another possible mechanism for the central nervous system damage is the formation of superoxide radicals or toxic hydroxyl radicals generated from hydrogen peroxide (see discussion in section 7.9.1). Evidence has been adduced to indicate that the ability of a related compound, dinitrobenzene, to cause cell death in co-cultures of rat brain astrocytes and brain capillary endothelial cells (a blood–brain barrier model) is at least partly due to the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the culture (Romero et al., 1996).
M dinitrobenzene synthesis essay - BL Dental Miami
Degradation of nitrobenzene has been shown to occur in anaerobic, expanded-bed, granular activated carbon reactors. The reactors were used to treat synthetic wastewater containing several semivolatile organic compounds (nitrobenzene at 100 mg/litre). The reactors were gradually acclimated to increasing concentrations of the semivolatile organic compounds over 150 days. The synthetic wastewater was then added at a rate of 8 litres/day (contact time of the reactor was 10.5 h); nitrobenzene was not detected in the reactor effluent. Aniline was detected as a degradation product (Narayanan et al., 1993).