Cellular factors influencing the biosynthesis of enterobactin in ..

enterobactin biosynthetic process

Enterobactin: An archetype for microbial iron transport

N2 - Significant conformational change is detected by circular dichroism and fluorimetry for the major component of the enterobactin synthetase in crowded solutions mimicking the intracellular environment. The structural change correlates well with the extent of the crowding-induced side product suppression in nonribosomal enterobactin synthesis. In contrast, protein-stabilizing solvophobic agents such as glycerol have no effect on the formation of side products, excluding crowding-induced protein stability as a cause for the observed enhancement of the product specificity of the synthetase. These results strongly support that macromolecular crowding is an indispensable physiological factor for normal functioning of the nonribosomal enterobactin synthetase by altering the active sites to increase its product specificity.

T1 - Enterobactin synthetase-catalyzed formation of P1,P 3-diadenosine-5′-tetraphosphate

01/04/2003 · National Academy of Sciences

AB - Significant conformational change is detected by circular dichroism and fluorimetry for the major component of the enterobactin synthetase in crowded solutions mimicking the intracellular environment. The structural change correlates well with the extent of the crowding-induced side product suppression in nonribosomal enterobactin synthesis. In contrast, protein-stabilizing solvophobic agents such as glycerol have no effect on the formation of side products, excluding crowding-induced protein stability as a cause for the observed enhancement of the product specificity of the synthetase. These results strongly support that macromolecular crowding is an indispensable physiological factor for normal functioning of the nonribosomal enterobactin synthetase by altering the active sites to increase its product specificity.

High-Yield Synthesis of the Enterobactin Trilactone and Evaluation of Derivative Siderophore Analogues.

N2 - Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases are large, multidomain enzymes that biosynthesize a number of pharmaceutically important natural products. The recognition of biosynthetic intermediates, displayed via covalent attachment to carrier proteins, by catalytic domains is critical for NRPS and polyketide synthase function. We report the use of combinatorial mutagenesis coupled with in vivo selection for the production of the Escherichia coli NRPS product enterobactin to map the surface of the aryl carrier protein (ArCP) domain of EntB that interacts with the downstream elongation module EntF. Two libraries spanning the predicted helix 2 and loop 2/helix 3 of EntB-ArCP were generated by shotgun alanine scanning and selected for their ability to support enterobactin production. From the surviving pools, we identified several hydrophobic residues (M249, F264, and A268) that were highly conserved. These residues cluster near the phosphopantetheinylated serine in a structural model, and two of these positions are in the predicted helix 3 region. Subsequent in vitro studies are consistent with the hypothesis that these residues form a surface on EntB required for interaction with EntF. These results suggest that helix 3 is a major recognition element in EntB-ArCP and demonstrate the utility of selection-based approaches for studying NRPS biosynthesis.

ABSTRACT. In Escherichia coli, isochorismate is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of the siderophore enterobactin and menaquinone (vitamin K2).


Synthesis of Enterochelin - ResearchGate

AB - Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases are large, multidomain enzymes that biosynthesize a number of pharmaceutically important natural products. The recognition of biosynthetic intermediates, displayed via covalent attachment to carrier proteins, by catalytic domains is critical for NRPS and polyketide synthase function. We report the use of combinatorial mutagenesis coupled with in vivo selection for the production of the Escherichia coli NRPS product enterobactin to map the surface of the aryl carrier protein (ArCP) domain of EntB that interacts with the downstream elongation module EntF. Two libraries spanning the predicted helix 2 and loop 2/helix 3 of EntB-ArCP were generated by shotgun alanine scanning and selected for their ability to support enterobactin production. From the surviving pools, we identified several hydrophobic residues (M249, F264, and A268) that were highly conserved. These residues cluster near the phosphopantetheinylated serine in a structural model, and two of these positions are in the predicted helix 3 region. Subsequent in vitro studies are consistent with the hypothesis that these residues form a surface on EntB required for interaction with EntF. These results suggest that helix 3 is a major recognition element in EntB-ArCP and demonstrate the utility of selection-based approaches for studying NRPS biosynthesis.

21/12/2017 · Synthesis of Enteroc..

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases are large, multidomain enzymes that biosynthesize a number of pharmaceutically important natural products. The recognition of biosynthetic intermediates, displayed via covalent attachment to carrier proteins, by catalytic domains is critical for NRPS and polyketide synthase function. We report the use of combinatorial mutagenesis coupled with in vivo selection for the production of the Escherichia coli NRPS product enterobactin to map the surface of the aryl carrier protein (ArCP) domain of EntB that interacts with the downstream elongation module EntF. Two libraries spanning the predicted helix 2 and loop 2/helix 3 of EntB-ArCP were generated by shotgun alanine scanning and selected for their ability to support enterobactin production. From the surviving pools, we identified several hydrophobic residues (M249, F264, and A268) that were highly conserved. These residues cluster near the phosphopantetheinylated serine in a structural model, and two of these positions are in the predicted helix 3 region. Subsequent in vitro studies are consistent with the hypothesis that these residues form a surface on EntB required for interaction with EntF. These results suggest that helix 3 is a major recognition element in EntB-ArCP and demonstrate the utility of selection-based approaches for studying NRPS biosynthesis.