Kinetics of dimethyl carbonate synthesis from methanol …
Dimethyl Carbonate is one of numerous organic carbonates that are esters of . It takes the appearance of a clear, colorless liquid, and emanates an alcohol-like odor. It has a molar mass of 90.08 g·mol−1, a density between 1.069-1.073 g/mL, a freezing point of 2-4°C and a boiling point of 90°C. DMC is soluble in water at .139 g/mL, but DMC is hydrolyzed in water systems over time to Methanol and Carbon Dioxide without proper buffers.
Synthesis Of Dimethyl Carbonate From Carbon Dioxide …
Dimethyl Carbonate is widely produced for commercial and industrial use. It is synthesized in a variety of ways. One common synthesis is via the transesterificiation of or with Methanol. These syntheses also yield Ethylene Glycol (not to be mistaken with ) and , respectively. Another method of Dimethyl Carbonate synthesis is done using a reaction of Carbon Monoxide, Methanol, and Oxygen. A third form of synthesis is no longer practiced, but is done by the reaction of Phosgene with Methanol via Methyl Chloroformate. Producers have moved away from this synthesis method due to the undesirable toxicity of Phosgene.
The solid solution series CeZr1-O2 ( = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) with a bimodal pore structure was prepared by the citric acid sol−gel method. Results from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements indicated that the physical properties of the solid solutions were significantly affected by the Ce/Zr molar ratio and the calcination temperatures. These solid solutions can be used in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. Results indicated that the structure of the solid solutions and the Ce/Zr molar ratio in CeZr1-O2 were the key factor in determining the catalytic activity for the synthesis of DMC. Higher catalytic performance was observed with a 1:1 Ce/Zr molar ratio at a calcination temperature of 1273 K. 1,1,1-Trimethoxymethane (TMM) was used to remove residual H2O in situ, and was found to increase the methanol conversion from 1.8 to 7.9% at 373 K under a pressure of 20 MPa after 24 h. The combination of the bimodal porous catalyst with an effective H2O removal agent gave a methanol conversion of 10.4% at 373 K, under 12 MPa after 34 h. The catalytic activity was almost doubled when the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was loaded on Ce0.5Zr0.5O2, which may be a promising means for selective production of DMC from CO2 and CH3OH.
20/10/2004 · ABSTRACT
When the molybdenum addenda atom of the Fe1.5PMo12O40 catalyst was substituted by tungsten addenda atom, the conversion (0.51%) remained stable, whereas a remarkable increase in DMC selectivity (61.87%) was observed. Finally, when the iron cation of the tungstate metal salt was replaced by the cobalt cation, only a slight increase in the DMC selectivity (69.00%) was observed, whereas a remarkable increase in Xc (1.53%) was observed. It can be seen from these results that the conversion and the selectivity of DMC showed dependence on the type of metal constituting the counteraction and the polyanions. Co1.5PW12O40 was the most active and the most selective for the DMC formation of the series of catalysts, probably due to the remarkable synergistic effect between Co and W. Taking into account the above results, we can conclude that designing a catalyst system constituting of Co and W is suitable for the conversion of methanol and CO2 into dimethyl carbonate.
Synthesis of Diethyl Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide ..
AB - CeO2-ZrO2 solid solution catalysis are very effective for the selective synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and CO2. The activity was much dependent on the calcination temperature. The higher the calcination temperature, the higher the activity of the catalyst for DMC formation, though the BET surface area is lower on the catalyst calcined at higher temperature.
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On the other hand, diphenyl carbonate is produced from dimethyl carbonate, which is readily manufactured from methanol, carbon monoxide and oxygen in the liquid phase, in presence of copper(II) chloride, CuCl2:
dimethyl carbonate synthesis from carbon ..
Small amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases such as hydrogen sulphide are emitted from the geothermal areas. In one area in Iceland, the gases from a power plant are piped to an adjacent installation where carbon dioxide is separated from other non-condensable gases and used as an input to a process, where hydrogen and carbon dioxide are passed over a solid catalyst under high pressure to produce renewable methanol. The hydrogen is made by electrolysis of water using electricity from hydro and geothermal power sources. This green methanol can be blended directly with standard petrol or can be used in esterification of vegetable oil or animal fats to produce (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester).