Two methods were used for the synthesis of these ..

T1 - Synthesis and cystine/cysteine-catalyzed oxidative folding of the amaranth α-amylase inhibitor

Amylose is made up of α(1→4) bound glucose molecules

Dr. Albert Crum, the founder of ProImmune®, understood that L-Cysteine is the most important part of that synthesis process. He also understood that owing to its unstable nature and oxidizability, L-Cysteine needs to be guided safely into bodily cells to participate in Glutathione synthesis. He proclaimed via his Patent that L-Cystine, which is made of two L-Cysteines bound together, is the optimal natural physiologic carrier of L-Cysteine until it passes the cell wall, whereupon the two L-Cysteines can immediately participate in the synthesis of Glutathione. Dr. Dean P. Jones, Director of the Emory University School of Medicine Biomarkers Laboratory, has discussed a cysteine/cystine shuttle in which cystine is transported into cells reduced and released as cysteine. Alternatively, plasma membrane oxydoreductases could use cellular reductives to reduce cystine to cysteine without transport.11

T1 - Synthesis of poly(cystine bisamide)-PEG block copolymers grafted with 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole and their phase transition behaviors

L-cysteine Benefits Side-Effects Dosage Studies Products

L-Cystine dihydrazide and L-cystine bis (p-alkoxyanilide) derivatives listed in Tables I, II, and III were prepared and submitted to antibacterial tests with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two methods were used for the synthesis of these compounds. The one was du Vigneaud's method and the other was a new route to cysteinyl peptides. In the antibacterial test in vitro, the strongest activity among these compounds was found in L-cystine bis (isonicotinoylhydrazide) which was inhibitory in a concentration of 0.1γ/cc. L-Cystine bis (p-pentyloxyanilide) showed antibacterial action in the range of 1∼0.3γ/cc.

Role of N-acetylcysteine and cystine in glutathione synthesis in human erythrocytes

protein obtained by boiling animal skin, connective tissue or bones, usually from cows or pigs. It's an edible form of . It is used as a gelling agent, stabilizer or thickener in cooking. It is also used in glues, photographic films, matches, sandpaper, certain soft drinks, playing cards, crepe paper and more
also known as gluconolactone or GDL. A fine, white, acidic powder. It is usually produced by the oxidation of a by microorganisms

a simple sugar usually produced by hydrolysis of a starch with mineral acids. Starches used include corn, rice, wheat, potato and arrowroot. It can also be produced synthetically or by adding crystallized to a mixture of alcohol and acid. In some countries (like the U.S.) glucose is run through filters
enzyme derived from the bacteria Streptomyces rubiginosus. It is used in the production of fructose syrups (including high fructose corn syrup) by changing glucose into fructose
a dietary supplement used to aid in the relief of joint problems. Usually extracted from the tissues of shellfish. It can also be derived from corn or produced synthetically
a clear, colorless liquid which is a by-product of the soap-making process obtained by adding alkalies (solutions with a pH greater than 7) to fats and fixed oils. It may be derived from animal fats, synthesized from propylene or from fermentation of sugars. Vegetable glycerin is derived from vegetable fats.
an amino acid, obtainable by hydrolysis of proteins
obtained from scales of fish Gum made from ground guar seeds.
a natural gum produced by the acacia tree to heal its bark if damaged. It is used in cosmetics, candy, syrups and as glue.

The reduction of cystine to cysteine was reported in 1884, and the structures of the two amino acids were proved by chemical synthesis in 1903–4

Amino Acid Derivatives: Catecholamine, …

organic compounds: saturated, polyunsaturated and unsaturated.
colors that have been certified safe for use in food, drugs and cosmetics by the FDA (the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S.). See .
Brilliant Blue FCF. A synthetic dye derived from . See .
Allura Red. Derived from either or . It is not derived from insects. See .
. Derived from . See .
. Derived from . See .
epidermal appendage of a bird. Most feathers are removed from birds, especially geese, ducks or chickens, during slaughter as a by-product of the poultry industry. They can also be plucked from live birds, especially ducks and geese, who are bred for either meat, foie gras or egg laying and breeding.
cloth made of wool, or of wool and fur or hair.
derived from the direct action of lactic acid on iron fillings or from the interaction of calcium lactate with ferrous sulfate.
an astringent iron salt obtained in green crystalline form. Used as an antiseptic in cosmetics and in treating anemia in medicine.
enzyme derived from the latex of the fig tree.
a synthetic form of .
fructose is a sugar that is found in many fruits, vegetables and honey. Commercial fructose and fructose-rich syrups are generally produced from starch (almost always corn starch). It is sometimes produced from inulin containing plants like chicory roots and Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

Metabolism – Proteins | Biochemistry for Medics – …

tasteless, odorless powder that occurs naturally in marble, , coral, eggshells, pearls or oyster shells
odorless white to off-white granules, powder or liquid. Produced in a variety of ways, including treating with , combining with a solution and by concentrating and purifying naturally occurring brines from salt lakes and salt deposits. Has many uses including additive for foods, deicing agent for sidewalks and roads, water treatment.
a synthetic preservative used to prevent crystal formation and to retard color loss. Has caused health problems and is banned in Australia and certain other countries.
also known as slaked lime. Used as acidity regulator in drinks and frozen foods or as a preservative. It's produced commercially by treating lime with water or by mixing and . It's most commonly derived from limestone, but can also derived from seashells.
the calcium salt of
(Monobasic, Dibasic and Tribasic) a mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and food, mineral supplement, abrasive in toothpaste and jelling agent. Also known as calcium rock.
mineral calcium with .
the calcium salt of the ester of lactyl lactate. a vegetable wax obtained from candelilla plants.
obtained from sugarcane. In some countries (like the U.S.), cane sugar is often processed through .
used as a coloring. It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis. Possible carbohydrates used are corn, beet sugar, cane sugar, wheat or potatoes. The great majority of caramel is derived from corn and will be vegan. However, some caramel is derived from and not necessarily vegan.

a weak acid formed when carbon dioxide combines with water.
alpha carotene, and gamma-carotene
milk protein
fine wool from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet
Obtained from the anal scent gland of the beaver
A vegetable oil expressed from the castor bean.
enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It is derived from cattle liver or fungus and used in the food industry
dried and twisted intestines of the sheep or horse
roe of the sturgeon and other fish
the principal component of the fiber of plants. Cellulose is usually obtained from wood pulp or cotton (which contains about 90% cellulose)
found in or synthetic
, can be synthetic

charred bone or wood
organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustacea e.g. shrimps, crabs
soft leather from the skin of the chamois antelope, sheep, goats, deer etc.

a steroid alcohol occurring in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk and blood.
used in products designed to help alleviate the effects of osteoarthritis. Produced synthetically or derived from the cartilage of cows, pigs, sharks, fish or birds

enzyme primarily derived from ox pancreas.
obtained from cinnamon leaves, coca leaves, balsams like storax or isolated from a wood-rotting fungus. Can be made synthetically.
derived from citrus fruits and since the 1920s commercially produced by fermenting sugar solutions with the microorganism Aspergillus niger. The main raw materials used in the production are corn-derived and molasses.
substance painfully scraped from glands in the anal pouch of the civet cat
thick liquid or semisolid tar obtained from bituminous coal (= soft coal)
red pigment extracted from the crushed carcasses of the female cochineal insect, a cactus-feeding scale insect
oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish
modified food starch derived from . Used in frozen foods and canned products. Often labeled as 'Food Starch - Modified'
a protein found in most connective tissues, including bone, cartilage and skin. It is usually derived from cows or chickens
a purified protein derived from animal sources. It's produced by breaking down to smaller protein fragments
Can be from plant, animal and synthetic sources. Most and colors are derived from . Coal tar in itself is considered a vegan product. However, coal tar derivatives cause frequent allergic reactions, like skin rashes and hives. It has also shown to cause cancer in animals. For this reason, colors and dyes are continuously tested on animals. That's why and colors and dyes can generally not be considered vegan and I will mark them as on this page.

hard calcareous substance consisting of the continuous skeleton secreted by coelenterate polyps for their support and habitation
derived from dried corn kernels
a form of made from . It is used as a sweetener
steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogs.
fixed oil derived from the seeds of the cultivated varieties of the cotton plant

Colorant derived from
amino acid that oxidizes to form
amino acid found in the hair protein keratin