Synthesis of 1α,25-Dihydroxy-16-ene-vitamin D3 and C-20 Analogues1

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[Extrarenal synthesis of calcitriol in sarcoidosis].

PCa is known as an androgen-dependent malignancy and the fact that other hormones such as calcitriol are now recognized as modulators of PCa growth and differentiation, suggest a role for pharmacological agents, which might make use of this endocrine axis. There is now considerable evidence to suggest that cross-talk exists between VDR and AR that may vary between different PCa cell lines. In addition, the phenomenon of sharing the same co-regulators which results in interdependence of AR and VDR signaling may contribute to the therapeutic activity of vitamin D in PCa,. The AR belongs to the superfamily of steroid nuclear receptors. AR coregulators, which were originally identified as AR-associated proteins, can modulate many other steroid receptors in this super-family. Co-regulators can act to enhance (co-activate) or decrease (co-repress) the AR and changes in its expression have been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in PCa patients. It has been reported that a large number of coregulators are overexpressed in PCa. Several AR regulators, including ARA54, ARA70, gelsolin, and supervillin, have been reported to promote VDR. Thus, by targeting this cross talk new therapeutic strategies designed to treat PCa could be developed.

17. Morris HA, Anderson PH. Autocrine and paracrine actions of vitamin d.  2010;31(4):129-138

A Total Synthesis of Calcitriol (PDF Download Available)

89. Xu Y, Hashizume T, Shuhart MC. . Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 catalyze hydroxylation of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): implications for drug-induced osteomalacia. 2006;69(1):56-65

Application to the Synthesis of 6-Methyl Analogs of Vitamin and Previtamin D

111. Sha J, Pan J, Ping P. . Synergistic effect and mechanism of vitamin A and vitamin D on inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. 2013;40(4):2763-2768

18. Demay MB. Mechanism of vitamin D receptor action.  2006;1068:204-213


Cholesterol vitamin d synthesis

82. Luo W, Yu WD, Ma Y, Chernov M, Trump DL, Johnson CS. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces Cyp24a1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) antitumor activity in human prostate cancer cells. 2013;73(7):2289-2297

Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids & Eicosanoids Basicmedical Key

81. Ly LH, Zhao XY, Holloway L, Feldman D. Liarozole acts synergistically with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to inhibit growth of DU 145 human prostate cancer cells by blocking 24-hydroxylase activity. 1999;140(5):2071-2076

vitamin d software activation code

78. Miller GJ, Stapleton GE, Hedlund TE, Moffat KA. Vitamin D receptor expression, 24-hydroxylase activity, and inhibition of growth by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in seven human prostatic carcinoma cell lines. 1995;1(9):997-1003

Calcitriol , also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, ..

90. Gupta RP, He YA, Patrick KS, Halpert JR, Bell NH. CYP3A4 is a vitamin D-24- and 25-hydroxylase: analysis of structure function by site-directed mutagenesis. 2005;90(2):1210-1219

Vitamin D; Calcium metabolism; Calcitroic acid; References

77. Masuda S, Byford V, Arabian A. . Altered pharmacokinetics of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood and tissues of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (Cyp24a1) null mouse. 2005;146(2):825-834

Vitamin D (Calcitriol) - Colorado State University

74. Swami S, Krishnan AV, Wang JY. . Dietary vitamin D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol) exhibit equivalent anticancer activity in mouse xenograft models of breast and prostate cancer. 2012;153(6):2576-2587