T1 - Abiotic synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Mars

E.: Regioselective ring opening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon epoxides by polymer-supported N3
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Natural rubber and synthetic rubbers are examples of polymers.

The authors suggested an association between the relatively nontoxic behaviour of the tricyclic PAH and the observed Ah receptor-independent induction of hepatic Cyp1a2 expression (Chaloupka et al., 1994).

E.: Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon substituted 2'-deoxyadenosine analogs,
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PAH in coal and petroleum products

Janssen (1980) stated that release of PAH into the atmosphere is not increased if the aromaticity does not exceed a concentration of 50% volume (see also Schuetzle & Frazier, 1986).

As an example, a glucoside of rhodopsin, found in the photosynthetic part of  is shown below.
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Santella RM, Perera FP, Young TL, Zhang YJ, Chiamprasert S, Tang D, Wang LW, Beachman A, Lin JH, & DeLeo VA (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA and protein adducts in coar tar treated patients and controls and their relationship to glutathione S-transferase genotype.

Emissions during use of individual PAH
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PAH are soluble in many organic solvents and are highly lipophilic.

Morphological transformation of mammalian cell in vitro by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Test system Resulta Reference Anthracene Balb/c3T3 mouse cells - DiPaolo et al.

PAH occur naturally in peat, lignite, coal, and crude oil.

Chromosomal effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mammalian cells in vitro Test system End-point Metabolic Resultb Reference activationa Anthracene Chinese hamster D6 CA, - - Abe & Sasaki SCE (1977a) Rat liver epithelial ARL18 SCE - - Tong et al.

The major source of PAH varies, however, in a given body of water.

Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on morphological transformation of mammalian cells in vivo Test system Resulta Reference Anthracene Mouse bone-marrow cells - Salamone et al.

In unpolluted areas, the PAH levels were 5-100 µg/kg soil.

Carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals Purity Species, Sex No./ Route of Dosage Study Incidence and type of tumour Result Reference strain sex/ admin.

The metabolism of PAH is complex.

Mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mammalian cells in vitro Test system End-point Metabolic Resultb Reference activationa Anthracene Chinese hamster V79 HPRT +/- - Knaap et al.

The values for other PAH are similar.

The liver was found to serve as a depot for PAH, in this case infused 3H-benzo [a]pyrene, which was converted into polar metabolites.