A new synthesis of anthraquinones - ResearchGate

Holton TA, Cornish EC 1995 Genetics and biochemistry of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

Synthesis of 2-substituted 9,10-anthraquinones: …

T1 - Synthesis, cytotoxicity and human telomerase inhibition activities of a series of 1,2-heteroannelated anthraquinones and anthra[ 1,2-d]imidazole-6,11 -dione homologues

(1978), Regioselective Synthesis of the Anthraquinones Digito-purpone and Islandicin.

01/11/2009 · Synthesis, cytotoxicity and ..

As an artist, your major concern is to understand the average lightfastness and generic handling attributes of these pigments across different manufacturers different pigment hues (chemical variations) — that is, to see paints as rather than as For example, both the blue and green and the orange to magenta are among the most transparent synthetic organic pigments available, although they can be quite staining; the phthalocyanines are also among the most lightfast. In contrast, cool and the warm are typically opaque and heavily staining too. (Note that lightfastness is strongly affected by the specific molecular form of a dye, by the finishing and laking process in manufacture, and by the particle size of the pigment: the average lightfastness ratings may lump together specific pigments with excellent or poor lightfastness, especially in large pigment families.) The following table presents the average pigment attributes for the most important synthetic organic pigments, based on all paint ratings in the .

T1 - Synthesis of symmetrical 1,5-bis-thio-substituted anthraquinones for cytotoxicity in cultured tumor cells and lipid peroxidation

AB - A series of 1,2-heteroannelated anthraquinones and anthra[1,2-d]imidazole- 6,11-dione tetracyclic analogues with different side chain were prepared using an various synthetic route via acylation, cyclization, condensation, and intramolecular heterocyclization. Tetracyclic system containing alkyl and aryl, aromatic and heterocyclic, linear and cyclic, polar and apolar, and basic and acids residues were incorporated. They were evaluated for their effects on telomerase activity, hTERT expression, cell proliferations, and in vitro cytotoxicity against NCI's 60 cell line human tumor screen. Compounds 4, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25, and 26 were selected by the NCI for one dose screening program and further studies on 4, 23 and 25 where the curves cross these lines represent the interpolated values to cause 50% growth inhibition (GI 50), total growth inhibition (TGI) and 50% cell killing (LC 50). respectively. Further studies did not reveal any compound that showed potent and significant on telomerase inhibitory activity and hTERT repressing ability. Comparative testing of these compounds in the NCI's screen revealed varying levels of potency and differential cytotoxicity, apparently related to the unsaturation levels in and substitution patterns on the core ring system. It appeared that addition of a fourth planar aromatic system to a tricyclic chromophore might enhances potent cytotoxic agents, at a level equivalent to a second side chain in one of the tricyclic series. Although the exact mechanism of how this pharmacophore contributes to its activity is still unclear, however, the group in the extended arm of the tetracyclic system might contribute to proper binding to the residues within the grove of G-quadruplex structure.

20/03/2003 · Synthesis of the benz[a]anthraquinone core of angucyclinone antibiotics

Synthesis of hydrogen peroxide via antraquinone

Unfortunately, the aniline pigments as a group tend to be very fugitive (they have ), and by the end of the 19th century paint manufacturers were labeling paints "permanent" to assure artists that their pigments were not aniline derived. To the extent aniline based paints were adopted by 19th century painters such as Vincent Van Gogh or Edgar Degas, their art has suffered drastically as a result. Nevertheless, from the research into these early dyes evolved modern organic chemistry and economic methods of colorant synthesis, which provide all the synthetic organic pigments in use today.

New Peptidyl-Anthraquinones: Synthesis and DNA …

Lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) is a global public health problem caused by the parasitic nematodes and. We have previously reported anthraquinones from daylily roots with potent activity against pathogenic trematode . Here we report the synthesis of novel anthraquinones AS and their antifilrarial activity. Anthraquinones AS were synthesized by a single-step Friedel−Crafts acylation reaction between phthalic anhydrides and substituted benzenes. The antifilarial properties of these synthetic anthraquinones were tested against microfilaria as well as adult male and female worms of . The most active anthraquinone was K, which showed 100% mortality within 1, 5, and 3 days, respectively, against microfilaria and adult male and female worms at 5 ppm concentration. Albendazole, an oral drug currently used to treat parasitic infections, was used as a positive control. Methylated products of anthraquinones did not affect the microfilaria. Histological examination of treated adult female parasites showed most of the anthraquinones caused marked effects on intrauterine embryos.

Anthraquinone - Introduction, Products, Patents, …

Damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal, two naturally occurring 9,10-anthraquinones, and their analogues were synthesized. Cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines was evaluated using MTT assay. 2-Bromomethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone was found to display the highest activity against all cell lines with IC50 range of 2-8 μM. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) assessment was considered to rationalise the cytotoxic effect. Bromomethyl group at position C-2 of the anthraquinone was found to be important in exerting cytotoxic activity of this class of compounds. The presence of the flanking methoxyl or hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-3 also contributes to this activity. Finally, the antioxidant effect of these compounds was evaluated. MTT assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Antioxidant activity was measured by FTC and TBA methods. Only two anthraquinones, damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal, were found to be antioxidative.