Synthesis of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Codoped 3D Cubic …

T1 - Synthesis of ethynyl-substituted precursors to carbon-nitrogen-sulfur extended structures

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon …

The Sohio process uses a catalyst that selectively accelerates the rate of formation of acrylonitrile without significantly affecting the reaction rates of competing combustion reactions. Consequently, acrylonitrile is formed more rapidly than CO2 and N2 under the optimized reaction conditions (approximately 1.5 atm and 450°C). The reaction mixture is rapidly cooled to prevent further oxidation or combustion of acrylonitrile, which is then washed out of the vapor with a liquid water spray. Thus controlling the kinetics of the reaction causes the desired product to be formed under conditions where equilibrium is not established. In industry, this reaction is carried out on an enormous scale. Acrylonitrile is the building block of the polymer called , found in all the products referred to collectively as , whose wide range of uses includes the synthesis of fibers woven into clothing and carpets.

An example of thermodynamic control is the Haber-Bosch process used to synthesize ammonia via the following reaction:

Synthesis of Nitrogen‐Doped Graphene Using …

The biosynthesis of amino acids involves several biochemical pathways in which amino acids are assembled from other precursors. The biosynthesis of amino acids is distinct from that involving lipids or carbohydrates because it includes the use of nitrogen.

Describe how you would design an experiment to determine the equilibrium constant for the synthesis of ammonia:

Because of the low value of the equilibrium constant at high temperatures (e.g., = 0.039 at 800 K), there is no way to produce an equilibrium mixture that contains large proportions of ammonia at high temperatures. We can, however, control the temperature and the pressure while using a catalyst to convert a fraction of the N2 and H2 in the reaction mixture to NH3, as is done in the Haber-Bosch process. This process also makes use of the fact that the product—ammonia—is less volatile than the reactants. Because NH3 is a liquid at room temperature at pressures greater than 10 atm, cooling the reaction mixture causes NH3 to condense from the vapor as liquid ammonia, which is easily separated from unreacted N2 and H2. The unreacted gases are recycled until complete conversion of hydrogen and nitrogen to ammonia is eventually achieved. is a simplified layout of a Haber-Bosch process plant.

A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles


SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC NITROGEN …

Amino acids are classically considered as the building blocks for the synthesis of proteins. Besides this, some of them play a major role in other functions, such as regulation of protein turnover and signal transduction, transport of nitrogen and carbon across the organs, or neurotransmission. The unique characteristics of amino acids are the presence of a free amino group in the α‐carbon and a free carboxyl group. The amino acids differ from each other with respect to their side‐chains. The amino acids are classified into subgroups according to their similarity in carbon skeleton, substituent groups or a common metabolic pathway. The biosynthesis of amino acids involves several biochemical pathways in which amino acids are assembled from other precursors. The biosynthesis of amino acids is distinct from that involving lipids or carbohydrates because it includes the use of nitrogen.

DTIC ADA135224: Synthesis of Phosphorus-Nitrogen …

Fritz Haber filed a German patent in 1908 for the synthesis of ammonia for which he won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918. It was a truly breakthrough invention; Haber discovered how ammonia, a chemically reactive, highly usable form of nitrogen, could be synthesized.1 Naturally nitrogen-rich soil is prime agricultural land due to its high productivity, but the nitrogen is depleted with each harvest, lowering the yield of farmlands year after year. A means of restoring nitrogen to soil would lead to a continuous, bountiful crop. Our atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen, but it exists in a chemically and biologically unusable form. Thanks to Haber’s discovery cheap nitrogen became readily-available and easily usable as a fertilizer. Ammonia synthesis exponentially increased harvests and will continue to do so for years to come. His invention is credited with saving millions of lives and will probably save billions more.

Synthesis of Nitric Oxide - University of Reading

But nitrogen has another application: it is the key ingredient in the explosive TNT (Trinitrotoluene). In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Haber only mentioned the growing demand for food as his motivation, but he was well aware of the invention’s other application. Following his discovery of ammonia synthesis, he had spent World War I working on poison gas research, earning the title “father of chemical warfare.” Haber’s ammonia synthesis invention cuts both ways; it has contributed to saving lives of millions but also to the deaths of millions.