Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

The base sequence in a DNA molecule, represented by the letters A T C G, make up the genetic code.

When are ribosomes used in the process of protein synthesis

Each cell in our body can be divided into three parts. For example, cell, reproductive cell or brain cells all have all the three parts and a membrane through which nutrition is absorbed inside and the toxins are expelled outside. The liquid or gooey substance which lies between the outer membrane and the nucleus which is at the center is cytoplasm. The main genetic components of the cell, DNA, chromosomes, and nucleic acid are located inside the nucleus. Cytoplasm mostly constitutes of water(80%) and various organelles. These organelles contain vitamins, ions, , nucleic acids, , amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates which are suspended in the gel like cytoplasm. The major functions of cells such as, expansion of You do not have access to view this node, growth and replication happen in the cytoplasm.

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

Composition and Function of the Cytosol and Cytoplasm …

All living organisms on earth consists of cells which are the basic units of life. Based on their function, cells are categorized into different types of cells, the somatic cells and the reproductive cells. Each cell has a nucleus and a jellylike watery substance that is 80% water that occupies the remaining part of the cell. This is called Cytoplasm. The cytoplasm holds different parts of the cell's organelles together. Cytoplasm was first discovered first in 1835 but the discovery is not credited to a single person as many biologists and researchers have contributed to the knowledge on Cytoplasm.

All of these proteins will contain
targeting signals
that share common motifs.
Chaperone proteins located in the cytosol also aid this transfer, by keeping newly synthesised proteins in an
unfolded state
, allowing them to be taken up by the mitochondria.

They are the site of protein synthesis.

It also discusses the functions of each of these components, and why this may be important to the cell.
The fibrous cytoskeletal elements that are constantly growing and shrinking are known collectively as the

Synthesis and Biosynthetic Trafficking of Membrane Lipids

Volkert K, Debast S, Voll LM, et al. (2014) Loss of the two major leaf isoforms of sucrose‐phosphate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana limits sucrose synthesis and nocturnal starch degradation but does not alter carbon partitioning during photosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 65: 5217–5229.

Synthesis and Biosynthetic Trafficking of Membrane ..

Sun J, Zhang J, Larue CT and Huber SC (2011) Decrease in leaf sucrose synthesis leads to increased leaf starch turnover and decreased RuBP regeneration‐limited photosynthesis but not Rubisco‐limited photosynthesis in Arabidopsis null mutants of SPSA1. Plant, Cell and Environment 34: 592–604.

Overview: Synthesis of all proteins begins in the cytosol compartment

Stitt M, Lunn J and Usadel B (2010) Arabidopsis and primary photosynthetic metabolism ‐ more than the icing on the cake. The Plant Journal 61: 1067–1091.

We have noted above that fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol.

Mugford ST, Fernandez O, Brinton J, et al. (2014) Regulatory properties of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase are required for adjustment of leaf starch synthesis in different photoperiods. Plant Physiology 166: 1733–1747.

Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible - ThoughtCo

Lunn JE, Feil R, Hendriks JHM, et al. (2006) Sugar‐induced increases in trehalose 6‐phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical Journal 397: 139–148.