Design, Synthesis, and Insecticidal Activity of Some …
Antibacterial mechanisms of s and herbs: The antibacterial activities of herbs are multi fold and depend upon the phytoconstituents, concentration of phytoconstituents/phytochemicals and bioactive principles and their synergistic as well as antagonistic actions (; ; ; ; ). These phtochemicals include flavonoids, steroids, β-carotene, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, glycosides, coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, gallic acid and others (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Various mechanisms of action and antibacterial abilities of herbal remedies relies on their several beneficial properties viz., immunomodulatory nature with enhancement of both humoral and cell mediated immunity as well ameliorating stress and immunosuppression; cytokine regulation; anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and inhibiting pathogens by a variety of pathways (; ; ; ; ). Many herbs have anti-oxidative potential by counteracting s or metaboloites produced during various biochemical pathways (; ; , ; ). A vast number of herbal plants show anti-inflammatory action by selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and thus inhibiting the prostaglandin biosynthesis. Several herbs decreases the production of of inflammatory agents (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin), enhance activity of cortisol and augments bllod circulation which help removing bacterial toxins out of the body (; ). Certain plants contain and carotenoids which have been found to augment both humoral and cell-mediated immune function, thereby reducing risk of infectious by enhancing the antigenic surveillance of the immune system (; ; ; ). Immunomodulation of most of herbal extracts are governed by cytokine regulation as well as anti-inflammatory properties (; ; ; ; ). Certain plants facilitate proliferation of CD4+ T-helper and B type immune cells. Others have been found beneficial in blocking bacterial adherence to different body cells thus help preventing the infection; blocking NF-êB pathway and the motogenic responses in infected cells; causing damage to cell membrane with loss of electrolytes and intracellular contents leading to bacteria death; downregulating the synthesis of LasA protease, LasB elastase and AHL molecules which inhibits the bacterial pathogenesis phenomenon by quorum sensing (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones present in herbs enhance engulfing activity of macrophages, increases the activity of white blood cells and other immune cells which in turn enhances their antimicrobial potentials (; ; ; ). All these factors decide the ultimate effect on host and pathogens and remedial effects of various herbs. Such mechanisms of actions, nature of phytoconstituents and potential antibacterial role/applications of many well established herbs and s have been briefly enlisted in and depicted in .
Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Diamides …
Because of the extremely high activity and the unique properties of these compounds, ones were interested in the synthesis of acyclic nitroenamine, cyanoamidine and nitroamidine derivatives,5"7 and a molecular-modeling-based approach was for the design of novel structural types
Synthesis of Three Analogues of Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor Tmof and Screening of Their Insecticidal Properties Towards Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar will be available on
Synthesis and antiviral activity of furobenzopyrones
With the objective to search for more potent compounds than Celangulin-V and to clarify the potential structural factors needed for the biological activity of Celangulin-V analogues, ten new C-6 substituted Celangulin-V ester analogues were designed and synthesized. The biological activities of these compounds were tested against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata.
Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activity Studies of ..
A series of 5-substituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4-thiadiazoles were prepared as muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and evaluated for their insecticidal activity. These derivatives were synthesized through sequential reactions consisting of the condensation of pyridinecarboamides or pyridinecarbothioamides with ,-dimethylacetamide dimethyl acetal, cyclization with hydroxylamine, quaternization by alkyl halide and reaction with sodium borohydride. All 1,2,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4-thiadiazoles synthesized were evaluated for insecticidal activity and their structure-activity relationships are discussed. It was discovered that many compounds were active against representative insects such as , and . In particular, it was also found that 3-pyridyl-substituted derivatives of 1,2,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-thiadiazole exhibited good insecticidal activity against all the insects tested. Among the compounds evaluated, 3-methyl-5-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole (9m-2) showed the highest activity against , and provided a high level of activity against the imidacloprid-resistant strain. Based on the preliminary binding assay using the binding inhibition of mAChR antagonist [3H]NMS to the nerve-cord membranes as an index of the binding activity, 9m-2 exhibited a range of potencies for the insect muscarinic receptor.
Synthesis and insecticidal activity of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives
Coadministration of extract with dexamethasone showed significant reduction in the epithelialization time with significant increase (p) ()
• Repellent / Insecticidal / Essential Oil / Rhizomes: Study evaluated the chemical composition and repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oil of K.