Glycogen Breakdown and ATP Yield - YouTube
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do. It is present in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of every cell, and essentially all the physiological mechanisms that require energy for operation obtain it directly from the stored ATP. (Guyton) As food in the cells is gradually oxidized, the released energy is used to re-form the ATP so that the cell always maintains a supply of this essential molecule. Karp quotes an estimate that more than 2 x 1026 molecules or >160kg of ATP is formed in the human body daily! ATP is remarkable for its ability to enter into many coupled reactions, both those to food to extract energy and with the reactions in other physiological processes to provide energy to them. In animal systems, the ATP can be synthesized in the process of in which there is a net production of two ATP molecules in a cycle. This glycolysis is a major step in . For the glycolysis is also a source of ATP but the more productive process in the tiny energy factories called plays a major role in the production of ATP.
Study 61 Fatty Acid Synthesis and Breakdown flashcards from Hi L
Acetyl-CoA is first made in the mitochondria either by the removal of hydrogen from a molecule pyruvate or by the oxidation of other fatty acids. This is a delicate balancing act. When the cell needs lots of ATP energy, all the pyruvate and oxidized fatty acids are broken down further in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle so as to make more and more ATP.
However, if the need for energy supplies decreases, the cells switch off these breakdown reactions and switch over to those metabolic pathways that join acetyl units together to form fatty acids, lipids and fat. These lipids are then stored and used as long-term fuel supplies as and when they are needed.
Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown - Oregon …
Cellular Respiration - uses oxygen from the environment and converts each pyruvate to three molecules of carbon dioxide while trapping the energy released in this process in ATP. There are 3 sub-pathways of cellular respiration - pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid (Krebs or Tricarboxylic Acid) cycle and the electron transport chain. Occurs in different sub-compartments of mitochondria.
Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
-respiration, in which pyruvate is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water, which creates a lot of ATP per unit of pyruvate (16 I think). Obviously, glycolysis has to happen first, in order to make the pyruvate. This happens in the mitochondrion, which likewise exists in both animals and plants.
SparkNotes: Glycolysis: Stage 1: Glucose Breakdown
Now this brings us to the next part - how do we go from glucose to ATP? This is achieved through the process of "oxidation" - and this is carried out through a series of metabolic pathways. Complex chemical transformations in the cell occur in a series of separate reactions to form each pathway, and each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Interestingly, metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms, from bacteria to humans. In eukaryotes (plants and animals) many of the metabolic pathways are compartmentalized, with certain reactions occurring in specific organelles. Basically, cells trap free energy released from the breakdown (metabolism) of glucose. This energy gets trapped in the ATP as it converts from ADP to ATP by the addition of phosphate.
Human Physiology - Cell structure and function - EKU
There is also light-independent photosynthesis, which USES ATP and creates glucose from carbon dioxide and water, producing oxygen as a waste product. This is really an energy storage mechanism, so that the organism doing it can later burn the glucose through glycolysis and respiration. This also happens in chloroplasts, so plants can, and animals can't.
Chemistry for Biologists: Respiration
Together with a protein partner called myosin, actin filaments make possible the muscle contractions necessary for everything from your action on a sports field to the automatic beating of your heart.