Krashen and Terrell's "Natural Approach"
In 2002 the Bush administration replaced the 1968 Bilingual Education Act with the English Proficiency Act, informally known as No Child Left Behind (NCLB). In essence, the law reflects the belief that setting measurable goals and assessing regularly via standardized tests whether these goals are being met is the basis of effective education. It applies sanctions (including withdrawal of funding) and other "corrective action" to schools whose students do not meet the yearly progress targets. The consequence of has been that many schools country-wide have dropped bilingual classes and adopted English-only programmes with a view to preparing students for these high-stake tests.
the affective filter, and the natural order hypothesis
Because English was developed using modifications and borrowed words from scores of fundamentally different languages, it would seem to be a language which most peoples of the world could easily acquire.
Similarly, Krashen suggests three conditions for its use: (1) there must be enough time; (2) the focus must be on form and not on meaning; (3) the learner must know the rule.
The learner's emotional state, according to Krashen, is just like an adjustable filter which freely passes or hinders input necessary to acquisition.
Natural Order hypothesis - Teflpedia
The average order ofacquisition of grammatical morphemes for English as an 'acquired' language is given below:
The implication of natural order is not that second or foreign language teaching materials should be arranged in accordance with this sequence but that acquisition is subconscious and free from conscious intervention (Ellidokuzoglu, 1992).
This hypothesis relates to acquisition, not to learning.
What is the natural order hypothesis
72), once again there isno theoretical basis for what to choose. Perhaps the most glaringomission is the lack of any reference to the Natural Order Hypothesis,which as noted previously, contained no realistically usable informationfor designing curriculum.
The natural order hypothesis states that all learners ..
Once beyond one-word answersto questions, the Natural Approach ventures out onto thin ice by suggestingelicited productions. These take the form of open-ended sentences,open dialogs and even prefabricated patterns (p.84). These formatsnecessarily involve explicit use of grammar, which violates every hypothesisof the Monitor Model. The authors write this off as training foroptimal Monitor use (p.71, 142), despite Krashens promotion of Monitor-freeproduction. Even if a teacher were to set off in this direction andbegin to introduce a structure of the day (p.
and the natural order hypothesis
Bilingual models, on the other hand, are founded on the hypothesis that academic proficiency (knowledge, understanding, skills, etc.) acquired in the native language are available to the student when learning takes place in English (see Cummins, 2000). Furthermore, this academic proficiency facilitates the acquisition of English because it helps to make what students hear and read more comprehensible to them. Proponents of bilingual programmes claim that much immersion or English-only instruction is incomprehensible to non-native speakers, who therefore learn neither English nor subject content.