Pathways for ceramide synthesis
A specific haplotype increasing the biosynthesis of long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was discovered and its importance in the development of modern pathologies is demonstrated ().
There are three major pathways of ceramide generation
AB - Our previous observations on the immunocytochemical colocalization of intermediate filaments and glycosphingolipids led us to analyze the role of filaments in the biosynthesis and intracellular transport of glycosphingolipids. Cells with (vim+) and without (vim-) vimentin intermediate filaments were cloned from the adrenal carcinoma cell line SW13. There was no difference between vim+ and vim- cells in the proportion of newly synthesized C6-NBD-glucosylceramide transported to the plasma membrane. The vim+ cells synthesized glycosphingolipids, especially lactosylceramide and globotriosylceramide, and to a lesser extent G(M3) ganglioside, more rapidly than vim- cells. The altered rate of biosynthesis did not result from differences in the levels of the glycosyltransferases that synthesize those compounds. To determine whether the presence of a vimentin network was responsible for the differences in biosynthesis, mouse vimentin cDNA was transfected into vim- cells. Transfected cells that expressed a mouse vimentin network demonstrated a twofold or greater increase in the rate of biosynthesis of neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides. There was no difference between vim+ and vim- cells in the synthesis of ceramide or sphingomyelin, or in their content of phospholipids or cholesterol. The nature of the biochemical defect(s) underlying the diminished incorporation of radiolabeled sugars into glycosphingolipids is unclear. Possibilities include alterations in the ultrastructure of the Golgi and/or abnormalities in a portion of the endocytic pathway.
Results demonstrate the existence of a nuclear receptor (LXR alpha) signalling pathway for oxysterols ().
Demonstrations of a tight connection between the intensity of blood n-3 fatty acid depletion and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients ()
It was proposed that one of the key factors in human encephalization was increased polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, especially long-chain, n-3 fatty acids from aquatic and terrestrial meat source ().
Biosynthesis of sphingomyelin from Eryrtro -ceramides …
discovered the essentiality of thelong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) ().
Anderson RJ reported the presence of inositol in lipids of tubercle bacilli ().
First demonstration of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from
Synthesis of surface sphingomyelin in the plasma …
1961, 83, 3080) made the first total synthesis of arachidonic acid.
Imai J demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of a saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid) is depressed in diabetic rats ().
Kennedy EP described the general pathways of the glycerolipid biosynthesis in animal cells ().
Bremer J et al.
Pathway Commons::ceramide biosynthesis
The first component protein of an enzyme of fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acidsynthase, was purified ().
Polyprenol diphosphates were shown to be involved in the biosynthesis ofpolysaccharides in () and in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycans in ().
The structure of juvenile hormone of insects was elucidated by Roller H ().
Synthesis and Biosynthetic Trafficking of Membrane Lipids
demonstrated that nearly allphosphatidylserine and a minimum of 70% of phosphatidylethanolamine is on theinside surface of the human erythrocyte membrane, thus "presenting a strongevidence for an asymmetric arrangement of phospholipids" ().
First demonstration of an inhibition of sterol biosynthesis (HMG-CoA reductaseactivity) by oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol in cultured mammalian cells ().
For the first time, the existence of polyunsaturated fatty acids was reported inmarine bacteria ().