Society results from the interaction of individuals.
Both perspectives should consider long term acquisition as an aim of their investigation rather than postulating incorporation of correction in subsequent productions. Cognitive interactionists measure learning by the students’ uptake, while social interactionists measure learning by reducing other-regulation. Both perspectives should consider learning as correct usage of TL within the new context of language production, not just within the context of correction. More empirical evidence is direly needed.
Hypothesis-Testing Processes in Social Interaction - …
The interaction hypothesis states that comprehensible input is necessary but insufficient for acquisition to take place . Therefore, Long proposed that there must be verbal interactions which should include modifications either via negotiation of form or negotiation of meaning. By providing learners with an opportunity to interact, they are more likely to pay attention to the input provided. Long’s interaction hypothesis led to the emergence of the output hypothesis.
This section of the course reviews the social structure of major social institutions, including the family, education, religion, the economy and work, government, and health care. Major questions asked include how institutions are organized, how inequality is reproduced and/or challenged in institutions, how institutions change, and how institutions vary across and within different societies/cultures. Students will understand what sociologists mean by social institutions, and will understand examples of major social institutions in Western societies. The course will analyze how social institutions develop as they do in different societies.
Hypothesis-testing processes in social interaction — …
E. Government: Power and Authority
The section on government and the state reviews patterns of power and authority in society, as well as analyzing the structure of the following institutions: government, the courts and law, the military. Different theoretical models of the state are reviewed, as well as patterns of political participation and political process. Questions asked include: How do different societies organize their political systems? How are interests aggregated and expressed in different types of political systems? What are political parties and how do they operate? How do we study power in a given society or community? How do we understand patterns of disenfranchisement and enfranchisement? Who participates in politics and how do they do so? How do voting patterns differ by race/ethnicity, social class, and gender?
Social interaction and the development of infants
The study of religion includes comparative discussion of diverse religious forms, including the classical study of religion from Durkheim, Weber, and Marx. Patterns of religious belief are reviewed, as well as the influence of religion on social and political attitudes and behavior. The structure of diverse religious institutions (churches, sects, and cults) is reviewed, as well as processes of religious socialization. The role of religion in influencing and being influenced by social change is also covered. Questions asked include: What are the major religions in given societies and how are they organized? What is the difference between a church and a sect? How do people understand their religious behavior? What is fundamentalist religion? Evangelical religion? What is the cause of religious conflict? How do religious behaviors vary by race/ethnicity, social class, and gender? How do religious organizations interact with other organizations in the society, e.g., the state?
Contact Hypothesis called the Parasocial Contact Hypothesis ..
Material on education includes the study of inequality and education, including patterns of tracking, race and class segregation, the connection between education and social mobility, inequality and educational testing, and the sociological study of school reforms. Questions asked include: What is the difference between education and schooling? Why were schools formed in various societies? When, where, and why did formal schooling become required? What are schools asked to do in various types of societies? What is home schooling, and where and why does it occur? How is education supported (funded) in different types of societies? Have the purposes of education changed during the course of U.S. history? What about in other countries around the world? Who decides the content of education, and how is this done? What is the "hidden curriculum" of schools? Who decides the educational processes that occur? How and where are decisions about educational structures made? What is "tracking"? What are some of the ways and places that education occurs besides in schools? How does the institution of education relate to other social institutions? How is education related to social stratification? What data can be used to analyze that relationship?