Animation of Protein Synthesis (Translation) in Prokaryotes

The rate of protein synthesis is higher in prokaryotes than ..

proteins and RNA and are the site of protein synthesis in both ..

On the other side it the opposite.
5' on top
3' on top
Eukaryotes change RNA after transcription by adding a 5'cap to the 5' end and a poly-A tail to the 3'end of the mRNA strand to protect them from some enzymes and help them attach to the ribosome.
Transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA).
Discovered the DNA double helix model, and the proposal of two DNA strands held by hydrogen bonds.

Using a centrifuge, DNA molecules separated with different isotopes and revealed a pattern that supports the semiconservative model of DNA replication.
Similarities
An isotope of an element is one that has more than the average number of neutrons for that element.
Transcription and Translation are both processes of protein synthesis in both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells.
Both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes require RNA polymerase to act on the DNA for transcription.
The end result of transcription and translation in both kinds of cells remain the same.
Each tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon at one end and a corresponding amino acid at the other.

10/12/2017 · Do the sites of protein synthesis differ in prokaryotic and ..

Pharmacologic Inhibition of Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis:

Transcription begins with a bundle of factors assembling at the Choose a 3-D animation.
Control of protein synthesis Most of the time when a cell is not dividing, Here the message it contains is interpreted, and a protein is built.
Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses Tutorial Eukaryotes Protein and RNA complex responsible for protein synthesis.

9. As the ribosome moves by two codons, next round of protein synthesis is initiated by the attachment of a new ribosome. Thus, at a time, a single mRNA is found to be attached with many ribosomes with their polypeptides of different length, (shortest polypeptide at the 5′ end of the mRNA and longest at the 3′ end), called polysomes.


Fig. 8.15 Peptide bond formation in growing polypeptide.
10. Ultimately, the A-site of ribosome is occupied by the termination codon (UAA,UAG or UGA) at the 3′ end of mRNA, which is not recognized by any tRNA. Thus, the termination of the protein synthesis is helped by the release factors RFl, RF2 and RF3 (in eukaryotes eRF1), which release the newly synthesized polypeptide chain from the P-site (Fig. 8.16).


takes time and slows protein synthesis.


In prokaryotes RNA processing is not necessary, but in eukaryotes the RNA must be processed before translation can occur.
3 main steps:
capping at 5' end
RNA splicing to remove introns
addition of polyA tail
Primary transcript is the initial product of transcription of an mRNA
Most genes have their protein-coding information interrupted by non coding sequences called
introns
The 5' end of the primary transcript (pre-mRNA) is synthesized first.
The 5' cap is a modified guanine nucleotide which attaches to the 5-end of the pre-mRNA.
The cap protects the RNA from being degraded by enzymes that degrade RNA at the 5' end.
RNA splicing removes introns and exons are joined.
exons
exons are a sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing.
RNA splicing begins with helper proteins at intron/exon borders, defining the DNA that will be cut out.
Small nuclear ribonucleo proteins (snRNPs) recognize the splice sites.
A spliceosome is made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splices RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
Synthesis of Poly-A tail
Poly-A tail is a stretch of adenine (A) nucleotides.
When a special poly-A attachment site in the pre-mRNA emerges, the transcript is cut there and the poly-A tail is attached to the exposed 3'end.
This completes the mRNA molecule which is ready to be transported to the cytoplasm.
Adenine-Thymine
Guanine-Cytosine
Adenine-Uracil
Guanine-Cytosine
Base Pairs
Base Pairs

A "difference between" reference site

It contains specific sequences of nucleotides that construct RNA, which codes for proteins.
DNA
RNA
Comparisons of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis
DNA Experiments
Translation
Differences
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Have 3 RNA polymerase
Have 1 RNA polymerase
Initiation more complex
Occurs in the cytoplasm
Occurs in the nucleus and moves to cytoplasm
Splicing of mRNA transcript does not occur
Splicing of mRNA transcript occurs
They are named RNA polymerase I, II, and III.
Hershey-Chase
experiment
Watson & Grick
experiment
Meselson-Stahl
experiment
Bacterial viruses, called phage, were used to confirm that DNA was the genetic material, and not protein.
DNA
RNA
PROTEIN
Transcription =
mRNA

Protein

DNA

mRNA
Translation =
The central dogma explains that DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins.

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis ..

… Golgi membrane protein interactions are responsible for its unique shape.
Protein biosynthesis Protein biosynthesis differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Protein synthesis animation Wesleyan University Learning Objects.
Eukaryotic protein synthesis and sites of action for initiation and elongation factors.