Case Study of Genie - Critical Period Hypothesis
However, some proponents of the behavioural genetic approach have declared most correlational findings on child development to be seriously flawed because they are based on traditional research designs focusing on between-family comparisons, which confound genetic similarities between parents and children with supposedly shared environmental influences.7 Harris,8 for example, claims that there is an urgent need to radically rethink and de-emphasize the role of parents in child development. Despite the prevalence of this current of thought, attachment theory continues to emphasize the important role of parental sensitivity.
Attachment - Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
Two hypotheses have been suggested to answer this problem: caregiver sensitivity hypothesis and temperament hypothesis.
Caregiver sensitivity hypothesis (Ainsworth et al, 1974) argues that the way the mother or caregiver behaves towards an infant directly causes the infant’s attachment type.
At first sight one may be inclined to conceptualize detachment from trauma and re-experiencing of trauma as mental states. However, on closer scrutiny it becomes apparent that in both cases a range or cluster of states rather than a singular state is involved. For example, being detached from trauma does not itself exclude being joyful, ashamed, sexually aroused, or curious at times, and re-experiencing trauma can encompass states such as fleeing, freezing, and being in pain or being analgesic. In this paper we relate detachment from trauma and re-experiencing trauma to emotional operating systems (Panksepp, 1998) and functional systems (Fanselow & Lester, 1988), briefly addressed as action systems. Action systems control a range of functions, but some are more complex than others. Reexperiencing trauma will be associated with the inborn and evolutionary derived defensive system that is evoked by severe threat, in particular threat to the integrity of the body. As a complex system, it encompasses various subsystems, such as flight, freeze, and fight. Detachment from trauma, in our view, is associated with several action systems (Panksepp, 1998), i.e., the ones that control functions in daily life (e.g., exploration of the environment, energy control), and the ones that are dedicated to survival of the species (e.g., reproduction, attachment to and care for offspring).
Attachment Informed Psychotherapy Daniel Sonkin, Ph.D
Is sensitive parenting the core ingredient of the shared environment? Twenty-one correlational studies have replicated a significant but modest association between parental sensitivity and infant attachment ( = .24, = 1099). But only experimental interventions can definitely prove Ainsworth’s original hypothesis. In 24 randomized intervention studies ( = 1280), both maternal sensitivity and children’s attachment security were assessed as outcome measures. In general, attachment insecurity appeared more difficult to change than maternal insensitivity. When interventions were more effective in enhancing parental sensitivity, they were also more effective in enhancing attachment security, which experimentally supports the notion of a causal role of sensitivity in shaping attachment.13
Ethological Attachment Theory - personality research
Several studies have documented that neurochemicals released during stress are highly concentrated in brain regions that are related to the execution of integrative mental actions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, and can thus interfere with the integration of experiences. These substances, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine, glucocorticoids, endogenous opiates, and several others (for a review, see McGaugh, 1990), may lower the individualis level of mental functioning, i.e., his integrative capacity. For example, retention of recently learned material is enhanced when moderate doses of epinephrine are administered after training, but impaired at high doses (McGaugh, 1990).
48/84 Coded Profile MMPI-2 Sample Report - Caldwell Report
Attachment, the affective bond of infant to parent, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stress in times of distress, anxiety or illness. Human beings are born with the innate bias to become attached to a protective caregiver. But infants develop different kinds of attachment relationships: some infants become securely attached to their parent, and others find themselves in an insecure attachment relationship. These individual differences are not genetically determined but are rooted in interactions with the social environment during the first few years of life. Sensitive or insensitive parenting plays a key role in the emergence of secure or insecure attachments, as has been documented in twin studies and experimental intervention studies. In the case of attachment theory, the nurture assumption8 is indeed warranted. Numerous findings confirm the core hypothesis that sensitive parenting causes infant attachment security, although other causes should not be ruled out.