Safety considerations for zeolite synthesis

Investigation of the cytotoxicity of nanozeolites A and Y

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Posted: 06.09.2017, 20:00. Author: Elugyri. Language use shows some variety, safety considerations for zeolite synthesis but there are some distracting usage errors.

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Zeolites are crystalline solids made of aluminum, oxygen, and silicon, and they have a cage-like three-dimensional (3D) structure with open pores and channels that are the size of small molecules. There are more than 230 naturally occurring and synthetic zeolites. Many important reactions are catalyzed by these compounds. In fact, they are the most widely used catalysts by volume within industry. In oil refining, zeolites crack the large hydrocarbon molecules of crude oil into smaller molecules that are easier to use as fuels. Cracking catalyzed by zeolites also provides starting materials for a multitude of other chemical processes, including the production of plastics. Toxic nitrogen-oxide emissions from diesel engines are converted into nitrogen through zeolite catalysts. Zeolites also catalyze methanol—a renewable resource—into gasoline. These are just some of the many reactions catalyzed by zeolites.

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The nanoporous structure that makes zeolites unique also makes them difficult to study with traditional surface-science tools, which typically require an exposed surface, because the catalytically active surface is enclosed within the pores.

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A novel approach to borosilicate zeolite synthesis in …

Even with unlimited financial resources, the burden of testing the approximately 70,000 existing chemicals produced in the world today would exceed the available resources of trained toxicologists. Centuries would be required to complete even a first tier evaluation of these chemicals (NRC 1984). In many countries ethical concerns over the use of animals in toxicity testing have increased, bringing additional pressures upon the uses of standard methods of toxicity testing. SAR has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to identify molecules with potential for beneficial use in treatment (Hansch and Zhang 1993). In environmental and occupational health policy, SAR is used to predict the dispersion of compounds in the physical-chemical environment and to screen new chemicals for further evaluation of potential toxicity. Under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the EPA has used since 1979 an SAR approach as a “first screen” of new chemicals in the premanufacture notification (PMN) process; Australia uses a similar approach as part of its new chemicals notification (NICNAS) procedure. In the US SAR analysis is an important basis for determining that there is a reasonable basis to conclude that manufacture, processing, distribution, use or disposal of the substance will present an unreasonable risk of injury to human health or the environment, as required by Section 5(f) of TSCA. On the basis of this finding, EPA can then require actual tests of the substance under Section 6 of TSCA.

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(1979) Reconnaissance study of the association of zeolites with mesothelioma cancer occurrences in central Turkey, Brockport, New York, State University College, 49 pp.

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In another study, we were looking at a 2D zeolite structure during instrument testing. We introduced an inert gas (argon) and thought nothing would happen in the high-pressure chamber. But to our surprise, argon got inside of the structure’s “cages” and stayed trapped in the pores. Usually, argon condenses at a very low temperature (40 Kelvin), yet this happened at room temperature (300 Kelvin). When we heated the structure, the argon was released. We then tried krypton and xenon—two nuclear waste products generated by power plants—which also got trapped inside the cages. It took a very high temperature to release these gases. So, we were conducting catalysis research and ended up with a finding that may have an impact in nuclear waste remediation—a potential way to trap these volatile radioactive gases.