acids in protein synthesis and that tRNA plays a central role in ..
The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the structure of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and to reinforce the role of DNA and RNA in the process of protein synthesis.
Transcription is the first of overall two protein synthesis steps
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.
RNAs involved in protein biosynthesis
Information flow in the cell: DNA is transcribed to mRNA which is translated (decoded as) into Protein. Protein biosynthesis takes place in the ribosomes. A series of ribosomes (poly ribosome) can simultaneously translate the same eukaryotic mRNA molecule. tRNA brings specific amino acid to ribosome and mRNA carries the genetic information to protein. Codons that encode the same amino acid often differ only by their third base. The binding of the third base is less stringent than the other two. Because of this wobble, one tRNA can pair with multiple mRNA codons.
quiz protein synthesis - Biology Junction
During transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) biogenesis, tRNA molecules undergo extensive processing before they can fulfill their essential role as the adapter molecule in translation, bringing amino acids into the ribosome for protein synthesis. Many components of the tRNA processing machinery have been identified in a variety of organisms, and a comparison of these shows many common features. However, species‐specific features have also been identified, and these present interesting examples of alternative evolutionary pathways and suggest additional interactions between tRNA processing machinery and other cellular processes. An increasing number of mechanisms have been identified that serve to safeguard the tRNA population, either by repair or removal of damaged tRNA species. A picture emerges of a tightly controlled and complex process required for tRNA biogenesis.
nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …
DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA