The Importance of Trees - Learn Value and ..
Recent studies have demonstrated that fungi are extremely important in all ecosystems and in particular for plants. Based on studies of the endophytic mycobiota, combining classical morphology with modern molecular phylogeny and bioprospecting have revealed an immense, unprecedented mycodiversity. This has led to the discovery of various unprecedented bioactive molecules that could serve well as lead candidates for agrochemical and pharmaceutical development. Fungal endophytes have also raised great interest with respect to their potential utility as candidates for biocontrol agents, biofertilisers, industrial enzyme production, and biofuel producing agents. On the other hand, a combination of morphological, molecular and chemical methodologies also serves well for recognition of newly arising pathogens that are now posing a serious threat to global agriculture, and for in-depth characterization of myxotoxin producing fungi. Regarding basic research, the data generated in the course of modern polythetic taxonomic studies will also serve well as references for molecular ecology studies that aim at identifying the respective fungi in the host plant. In the near future, phylogenomic studies will complement our knowledge on the correlations between salient phenotypic and corresponding genotypic features,.The proposed symposium is designed to attract leading mycologists from around the world, who are working on evolutionary aspects and/ or applied mycology. Aside from the proposers, some other leading research groups such as those of M. J. Wingfield (South Africa), P. W. Crous (Netherlands) and K. D. Hyde (Thailand), and A. Miller (USA) will be asked to contribute .
Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits
The role of rainforests in the global carbon cycle is complex and little known. Plants and animals contain a great deal of carbon, which they take up as carbon dioxide (CO2) during growth and photosynthesis, and which they release to the atmosphere during respiration and decomposition. Although rainforests form less than half of the total forest on earth, their leaf systems comprise approximately 70% of the world’s total leaf surface area. Rainforests have ten times more leaf area than temperate forests of comparable size and fifty times more than grasslands. It is not surprising, then, that they account for between 30% and 50% of total primary productivity (photosynthesis) in terrestrial systems, although they cover only 6% of the total land area of the earth. This means that they store more carbon (as sugars and starches) per unit area than any other type of ecosystem. Rainforests are thought to contain between 40% and 50% of the carbon in the terrestrial biomass (Phillips, et al., 1998), which has been estimated as more than 17 kilograms of carbon per square meter. The rainforests of Amazonia contain between 14 and 40 kilograms of carbon per square meter. The soils lying under rainforests also contain substantial amounts of carbon (in roots, microorganisms, soil fungi and plants), which amounts to about 27% of global soil carbon (Lodge, et al., 1996).
Cyanobacteria have a close evolutionary relationship with eukaryotes. They have the same photosynthetic pigments as the chloroplasts of algae and land plants. Chloroplasts are the right size to be descended from bacteria, reproduce in the same manner, by binary fission, and have their own genome in the form of a single circular DNA molecule. The enzymes and transport systems found on the folded inner membranes of chloroplasts are similar to those found on the cell membranes of modern cyanobacteria, as are their ribosomes. These similarities between cyanobacteria and chloroplasts suggest an evolutionary link between the two, and can be explained by the theory of .