The aphasia is a language regression in the form of a verbal ..

Example of single-case data with no treatment effect (no reduction in problematic behavior).

Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging regression analysis ..

Each participant received the generative language module first. More time was spent in this module because it is here that the PWA learns the organization of most of the vocabulary items in CSA. The training emphasized the production of actor-action-object messages, as well as how CSA can be used to communicate novel information that is unknown to the clinician. For example, as early as the first session, the participant is asked to communicate something about a meal they have eaten prior to the session. In this way, participants are exposed early to the primary function of CSA, i.e. to communicate novel information using picture selections.

I turn now to the dark side of Fodor’s hypothesis: the claimthat central systems are not modular.

Resveratrol for this is the regression hypothesis in those ways

Response to treatment could be determined in a variety of ways, including measuring accuracy levels within treatment sessions, determining how quickly a transition is seen from clinician-directed to PWA-initiated expression, and assessing generalization of performance to functional probe tasks. For the purposes of this study, only data for this last measure are included. Generalization of skills learned in treatment was measured by repeatedly probing performance on five tasks designed to reflect a range of real-life functional communication activities. The tasks were 1) responding to a set of seven autobiographical questions, such as “what is your address?”, 2) describing a set of five pictures, (e.g. a picture of a woman cutting a cake), 3) describing a one-minute nonverbal video showing a mother and her children performing daily tasks in a kitchen, 4) making two semi-scripted telephone calls in which specific information needed to be exchanged, and 5) writing a birthday card and a grocery list.

Lecours, A. R., & Lhermitte, F. (1969). Phonemic paraphasias: Linguistic structures and tentative hypotheses. , , 193–228. .

In a 1997 study, for instance, Chertkow et al. examined sentence comprehension in aphasia and drew attention to a subset of patients with aphasia who showed semantic deficits that extended into nonverbal domains of object representation and concept knowledge. , and further explored this question comparing the behavior of patients with semantic dementia (SD) with patients with semantic aphasia (SA), their results suggesting that in many cases SA patients have preserved conceptual knowledge, but impaired executive function, this impairment impacting their control over semantic activation. Studies exploring new verbal learning in aphasia have shown that learning ability is related to patients’ profiles of linguistic (; ) and cognitive () strengths and deficits. Patient phonological and semantic short-term memory skills, for example, appear to influence patients’ abilities to engage in phonological learning (word translation learning) and semantic learning (new definition learning, ).

| Proposals concerning the regression hypothesis in aphasia presented in Grodzinsky (1990) and …


An analysis of the regression hypothesis…

Speech production models guiding research in the field of acquired speech impairments are anchored in contrasting viewpoints about the nature of language and mechanisms involved in speech production and its impairments. One such viewpoint holds that language is composed of relatively autonomous processing subsystems where each of them is assigned a specific functional role such as lexical or morphological processing. In this account, speech production is conceptualised as a linear top-down process combining retrieval of information stored in the memory and computation processes involving units of encoding specific to a given domain. In architectures based on these assumptions (e.g. ; , ), phonological and phonetic encodings are thus regarded as two functionally separate and largely independent components organised hierarchically with phonological encoding giving output for further phonetic programming. Importantly, the word-form encoding proceeds according to the principle of seriality, dominant in this account, which postulates that only one item selected during the phonological encoding can constitute the entry of the phonetic module, where it is further translated into motor commands. A shortcoming of such architectures, with respect to phonetic and phonological processing, consists in the fact that it does not account for the variability which is systematically revealed during the conversion of higher level representations into overt speech.

for each patient from a linear regression ..

Although this performance is impressive, there is still a long wayto go in training nets that can process a language like English. Furthermore, doubtshave been raised about the significance of Elman's results. Forexample, Marcus (1998, 2001) argues that Elman's nets are not able togeneralize this performance to sentences formed from a novelvocabulary. This, he claims, is a sign that connectionist models merelyassociate instances, and are unable to truly master abstract rules. Onthe other hand, Phillips (2002) argues that classical architectures areno better off in this respect. The purported inability of connectionistmodels to generalize performance in this way has become an importanttheme in the systematicity debate. (See Section 7 below.)

Second language regression in Alzheimer ..

tinuum are quasi-experiments. Quasi-experiments usually do not have random assignment, but it is important to recognize that they can be among –the most effective and powerful– (p. 171) [12] nonrandomized experimental designs [13]. Furthermore, single-case quasi-experimental designs are especially useful in the study of low-incidence problems or conditions in which accessing a large representative sample for randomization of treatment would be virtually impossible. In addition, they are useful in the study of clinically complex cases. When these studies include multiple individuals, they can provide a strong basis for drawing valid inferences about a treatment effect. Such designs may address major threats to internal validity such as history, maturation, testing, and instrumentation.