Cognition: Theory, Measurement, Implications - …

Hypothesis A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship ..
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Table 1: The four levels/modes of processing

Findings regarding the dependency of thinking processes on content, further clarifies the relationship between logic and reasoning. This content dependency of reasoning processes is reflected by findings indicating for example that (a) thematic or known content seems to affect logical performance; (b) beliefs associated with certain contents may bias responses; and (c) semantic contexts influence interpretation and inference. Researchers have found that content which pertains to subjects’ personal experience may facilitate performance by triggeringthe use of existing representations and knowledge systems. Reasoning responses to known content are simply appropriate to the subject’s experience and may or may not be according to principles of logic. Known content does therefore not necessarily indicate reasoning ability.

As an example, we note that work on 'change blindness' does not
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techforinstructionfall08 - Constructivism

A number of theoretical models reflect either a very general level of focus, or a focus on a micro-level in processing. The three-stage theories of problem solving are examples of theorising on a very general level. Much of the information processing research using reaction time methodology, as well as some of the domain specific processing models, can be criticised for being too specific. Sternberg’s (1977b) Triarchic Theory of intelligence is an example of such a specific model. It has subsequently been criticised for being complicated and over-inclusive (Eysenck, 1984; Jackson, 1984) and for containing internal conflicts (Baron, 1984; Economos, 1984).

An example of a general model is that of Hirschman (1981) who identified three steps of problem solving, namely:
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A great deal has been learned about LTP, its mechanisms, and its various forms. For example, depolarization without activation of NMDA receptors and protein synthåesis results in an ‘early’ Hebbian form of LTP that only lasts several hours. By contrast, NMDA receptor-dependent LTP leads to structural changes that show little sign of degradation with time. This could suggest that once a memory undergoes such ‘synaptic consolidation’ and is associated with the structural changes of late-phase LTP, it is immutable. Unfortunately, this is not the case as these changes are not permanent nor are the memories that have been thus encoded indelible. Although coincident firing of neurons can lead to LTP and the strengthening of a memory, if the neurons fire in an uncorrelated way (as may be the case if the neurons individually activate in different experiences and therefore different memories of those experiences) this leads to the opposite, namely a reduction in the strength of these same synapses that LTP strengthens. Thus, there is a mechanism, known as LTD, for weakening synaptic connections, and therefore presumably memories, as well. Importantly, LTP and LTD occur at the level of individual synapses and the same individual neurons and synapses are likely involved in several or many memories, leading to the potential for interference of one memory with another and suggesting that the learning of new information can overwrite previously learned information by changing the strengths of the synapses that had been used to encode that information. Conversely, as noted above, previously learned information (experiences, biases, etc.) can influence the learning of new information.

Here we study this hypothesized relationship for one of the most conspicuous features of early vision: .
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PSYC 213: Cognition Flashcards - Course Hero

Although some of the models gave rise to the development of a number of sophisticated computer production systems applying (i) the generate-and-test method; (ii) the heuristic search method; and (iii) the hypothesise-and-match methods (Newell, 1973), research in the area of problem solving is characterised by inadequate conceptualization and a lack of empirical evidence. The further development of appropriate and effective methodology is also a crucial prerequisite for further research.

Neisser's paradigm of schema development: ..

Bar graphs often depict measures of central tendency, but they do so asymmetrically: a mean, for example, is depicted not by a point, but by the edge of a bar that originates from a single axis.

Study Memory Traces And Memory Schemas Flashcards at ..

Some very specific and very general models have been formulated. An example of a specific and detailed model is that of Sternberg (1977c; 1979; 1983). According to him, analogical reasoning can be analysed in terms of the following processes:

own lives with the course of history and say ‘I was there’” Neisser.

When asked about statements about memory-related phenomena in a national survey across the United States, members of the general public (n = 1500) accepted many phenomena that were not endorsed by experts in the field (i.e., professors with more than 10 years of experience in memory research), who showed strong consensus among themselves (see the figure) . Such misunderstandings of memory can have significant consequences in court, where judges and jurors often assume memory to be more accurate and veridical than is indicated by the neurobiologically reconstructive nature of memory. Note that one limitation of these surveys is that expert opinion about memory-related phenomena may change over time as more research findings become available. For example, a 1989 study showed that expert opinion regarding the phenomenon of “weapon focus” had changed compared to a survey published in 1982 and further changes in expert opinion regarding “weapon focus” as well as other phenomena were shown in 2001. Although expert opinion about memory-related phenomena may sometimes be wrong, it is presumably the best indication of the true nature of such phenomena. The authors of one recent study suggested that public and expert opinion are beginning to converge. However, other studies suggest that in some aspects lay beliefs are still quite different from those of experts. There is, therefore, a need for periodic updating of both expert and public opinion. Data from Ref. .