There are two general classes of partitioning coefficients.
Templin MV, Jamison KC, Sprankle CS, Wolf DC, Wong BA, Butterworth BE (1996c) Chloroform-induced cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation in the kidneys and liver of BDF1 mice. , 108:225-231.
There are several good references on air monitoring and analysis.
Chloroform can be released to the environment from direct processes (production, storage, transit, or use) or as a result of its formation from other substances, in processes such as paper bleaching with chlorine and water chlorination. Pulp and paper mills, municipal wastewater treatment plants, chemical manufacturing plants, and waste incinerators represent anthropogenic sources of chloroform (IPCS, 1994a). Various organic compounds present in natural waters, particularly humic and fulvic acids derived from soils and the decomposition of plant material, may contribute to the formation of chloroform (via the "haloform reaction") in areas where the drinking-water has been chlorinated (Environment Canada & Health Canada, 2001). As mentioned above, McCulloch (2003) reported that anthropogenic sources contribute about 66 000 ± 23 000 tonnes per year.
An industrial survey carried out in Canada revealed reported releases, by 23 pulp and paper mills, of 288 tonnes of chloroform into the atmosphere, 15.6 tonnes into water bodies, 0.019 tonnes into wastewater treatment plants, and 0.127 tonnes into landfills in 1996 (Environment Canada, 1997a). Chloroform generation and concentrations in effluents of these mills are reduced significantly when chlorine dioxide is substituted for elemental chlorine in the bleaching process (Solomon et al., 1994; M. Henteleff, personal communication to Environment Canada, 1999).
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Analysis of composite food groups prepared from groceries bought from four retailers in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, found chloroform in 5 of 33 composites (cheese/butter, canned meats, vine vegetables, soft drinks, and dehydrated soups). The maximum concentration found was 67 µg/litre (Enviro-Test Laboratories, 1992). A similar study of 35 composite groups found chloroform (detection limits were 1 µg/litre in beverages and 5 µg/kg in foods) only in soft drinks and alcoholic drinks (Enviro-Test Laboratories, 1993).
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Deterministic estimates were generated using the above monitoring data and reference values for body weight, inhalation volume, and consumption of food and water. Average intake from food, drinking-water, and air varied from 0.6 to 10 µg/kg body weight per day. Upper-bounding estimates were calculated using maximum reported concentrations in water, food, and air and ranged from 40 to 95 µg/kg body weight per day (or up to 148 µg/kg body weight per day for infants fed exclusively on powdered infant formula prepared with tap water containing the maximum reported chloroform concentration). Daily showering increased estimated exposure by about 50-100% for some subgroups. Further details are given in the source document (Environment Canada & Health Canada, 2001).
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In addition, probabilistic estimates of daily chloroform intake from air and drinking-water in Canada were developed for two scenarios (average population exposure and reasonable worst case), but data were considered insufficient to develop probabilistic exposure estimates from food consumption or showering. Simulations of 10 000 trials were run 5 times each using Monte Carlo random and Latin Hypercube methods. The two sampling methods gave similar estimates, and relative standard deviations (for = 5 simulations of 10 000 trials each) of the upper-percentile estimates of intake did not exceed 5%, indicating a high degree of reproducibility. The average population scenario was based on the distribution of chloroform in 8807 outdoor air samples collected during the 1990s, the estimated geometric mean and standard deviation of an assumed lognormal distribution of chloroform in the indoor air of 754 Canadian homes, and analysis of chloroform in 6607 drinking-water samples in Canadian provinces and territories. The 95th percentiles of the distribution of intakes from inhalation and ingestion of drinking-water for five age groups of the general population (i.e., 0.5 years to 60+ years of age) ranged from 4.9 to 12.9 µg/kg body weight per day (Health Canada, 1999). The limitations of the data on the daily intake rate of total tap water by infants (EHD, 1998) prevented the development of probabilistic estimates for this subgroup.
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The reasonable worst-case scenario was based on 800 outdoor air samples collected during the 1990s from four sites adjacent to major Canadian roadways, the estimated geometric mean and standard deviation of an assumed lognormal distribution of chloroform in the indoor air of 754 Canadian homes, and the distribution of chloroform in 2597 drinking-water samples from the two provinces with the highest reported concentrations. The 95th percentiles of the distribution of intakes from inhalation and ingestion of drinking-water for the same five age groups of the general population ranged from 7.0 to 19.1 µg/kg body weight per day (Health Canada, 1999). The limitations of the data on the daily intake rate of total tap water by infants (EHD, 1998) prevented the development of probabilistic estimates for this subgroup.