Unit 7 DNA and Protein Synthesis - Mr. Little AP Biology
In addition resistance exercise like weight lifting is a powerful anabolic (building) process that improves protein synthesis (increased muscle mass).
In fact what athletes need is increased caloric intake (60 calories per kilogram of body weight per day) which may contain protein food sources as well.
Unit 5 ~ DNA, Cell Division, & Protein Synthesis
The process of translation can be divided into the stages of initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation involves at least three other proteins called initiation factors to help bind the mRNA to the smaller subunit of the two-unit ribosome. It is bound to the correct location using the initiation codon AUG on the mRNA. The next phase is elongation, or adding other amino acids to the building polypeptide chain. According to Karp, a step of elongation can be accomplished in about 1/20 second, so a small protein of 400 units could be assembled in about 20 seconds! It is suggested that most of this time is used sampling the amino-acid-carrying tRNAs in the cytosol to find the ones for which there is a codon-anticodon match for the next codon along the mRNA pattern.
Hence when resistance develops due to ribosomal methylation that reduces binding, all three antibiotics are similarly affected.Figure 2. A) Sites of action of inhibitors of bacterial protein synthesis.