The mRNA is the code that is translated into a functional protein...

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

Transcription, Translation and Replication from the perspective of ..

Replication occurs in the S-fase in preparation to cell division during which the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins is transfered from the mothercell to the daughtercell.

The RNA is further transported outside the nucleus, to the cytoplasm, where it become active in the translation (the actual synthesis of proteins).

which carries the information needed for protein synthesis

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

1. Original Source: Larry Flammer, idea developed in 1963 and used in Biology classes ever since, as the finale to a series of Do-It-Yourself DNA Kits (1. DNA Structure & Sub Structure, 2. DNA Replication, and 3. Protein Synthesis, all involving manipulation of cutouts, and resulting in the spelling out of a little 3-letter word (meaningful amino acid sequence).

Internet-Based Tools for Teaching Transcription and Translation

1. Along with your unit test on the DNA unit, include the "practical" test supplement, requiring students to decipher a short DNA message during a test. Provide the (including tRNA Dictinary), the special answer sheet, and a unique word for each student (on little slips of paper, which you can prepare from the sample sentences provided, or use the 33 3-letter provided (along with a for you to use in grading the test.).. Insist that each step be shown and the molecules involved be labeled (DNA, mRNA, tRNA, "protein" (as the "meaningful amino acid sequence"). Include completeness and accuracy in showing these steps and labels in your grading.


Am I right in assuming that each group of students first made a stop animation movie of their simulation of transcription which you reviewed with them and then later made a movie of their simulation of translation? Did you review these movies with each group of students separately? Did the different teams of students compare movies?

The protein synthesis occurs by means of transcrition ..

A functional single strand
with the

is made.

This is

This mRNA strand can now leave the nucleus and head over to the ribosomes.

It's time to create a protein:
begins ->
it's very important to understand the nature of mRNA's chemical message.

Transcription and Translation: From DNA to Protein - …

The main change in this revision is the incorporation of a slot in the nucleus to insert the DNA molecule and a slot in the ribosome to insert the mRNA molecule. Once the DNA or mRNA molecule is inserted, most of the nucleotides are not visible, so students are not tempted to line up all the matching nucleotides or tRNA anti-codons at once. Instead, students add only one nucleotide at a time during transcription and only one amino acid at a time during translation to model the actual biological processes of transcription and translation.