The mRNA is the code that is translated into a functional protein...

The DNA helix is unwound and the primary mRNA strand is made by RNA polymerase.

The primary mRNA strand is then processed to remove introns.


Frameshift mutations
insertion
deletion
Point Mutations
a single nucleotide (base) changes in the DNA or RNA

DNA
A-T
G-C
C-A
Frameshift Mutations
Insertion
A nucleotide is added to the DNA strand being created, causing a shift in all remaining nucleotides

Deletion
A nucleotide is removed from the DNA strand being created, causing a shift in all remaining nucleotides
Central Dogma
DNA codes for RNA
RNA guides the synthesis of proteins

RNA processing
In comparing DNA code with its transcribed mRNA code, scientists found that the mRNA code was much shorter.

DNA sequences not found in mRNA are called
introns
.

DNA sequences that remain in the final mRNA are called
exons
.

RNA Processing
mRNA code is significantly shorter than the DNA code
The DNA code is interrupted by sequences that are not in the final mRNA sequence known as
introns
.
the coding sequence that remain in the final mRNA are called
exons
.

But how does RNA polymerase "know" where to start and stop making an RNA copy of DNA?

active site of the RNA polymerase, terminating transcription.

The entire protein would actually require a much longer sequence of DNA bases.
Whenever a protein needs to be made, the correct DNA sequence for that protein is copied to a molecule called (mRNA).

Note: It would be more accurate to say that each gene coded for a particular polypeptide, because some proteins are made of more than one polypeptide chain. For simplicity, I'm going to refer from now on to the synthesis of a protein, rather than a polypeptide - it sounds less scary!


Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA

ATP & Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.

Start studying ATP & Protein Synthesis

The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the structure of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and to reinforce the role of DNA and RNA in the process of protein synthesis.

Explain the role of RNA Polymerase in protein synthesis.

T7 () and SP6 ()RNA polymerases are DNA dependent RNA polymerases that produce DNAtemplated RNA transcripts. T7 and SP6 exhibit high specificity for theirrespective promoters. Both T7 and SP6 can be used for the in vitrosynthesis of RNA for a wide variety of applications, includingtransfection, translation, structural studies and radioactive andnon-isotopic probe generation. E. coli Poly(A) Polymerase () and Poly(U) Polymerase () generate untemplated homoribopolymeric tails on the 3´-ends of RNA. Both E. coli Poly(A) Polymerase and Poly(U) Polymerase can be used for RNA tailing for reverse transcription or labeling.