Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis

Buzzle provides a brief difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication processes.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic protein synthesis …

They have recognised a major distinction between two types of cells, Eukaryotic cells that have a nucleus and Prokaryotic cells that do not have a nucleus....

But all of these cells fall into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells.

Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and are larger in size than prokaryotic cells.

Such a definition, however, can be argued to be a poor discriminator between organisms of Eukarya and Prokarya, because it describes only what prokaryotes are lacking, not what they fundamentally ‘are’.

Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus, are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells.


Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic ..

Ribosomes are made up of small and large subunits composed of numerous rRNA and protein molecules (Figure 1.10.). Different sites can be formed in the functional ribosome (Figure 1.11.), which provide binding surface for the participants of the protein synthesis and ensures fine tuning of aminoacyl-tRNA entrance (A site); peptide bound formation (P site) and empty tRNA exit (E site). In the course of the of protein synthesis in prokaryotes the fMet-tRNA connects to the small subunit assisted by initiation factor-2 (IF-2), then the small subunit recognizes the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (AGGAGG) in mRNA since its 16S RNA contains anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence (UCCUCC). The attachment of the complementary sequences results in the proper positioning of the small subunit to the start (AUG) codon (Figure I-12). In the eukaryotes the initiation of the protein synthesis is similar: Met-tRNA binds to the small subunit with the help of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2). The small subunit recognizes the first AUG codon following 5’ cap structure of mRNA (scanning) and the Kozak sequence promotes the connection between the mRNA and the small subunit (Figure 1.13.). Initiation is ended by the formation of the 70S or 80S ribosome complex (Figure 1.14.).

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis ..

Ribosomes are made up of small and large subunits composed of numerous rRNA and protein molecules (Figure 1.10.). Different sites can be formed in the functional ribosome (Figure 1.11.), which provide binding surface for the participants of the protein synthesis and ensures fine tuning of aminoacyl-tRNA entrance (A site); peptide bound formation (P site) and empty tRNA exit (E site). In the course of the of protein synthesis in prokaryotes the fMet-tRNA connects to the small subunit assisted by initiation factor-2 (IF-2), then the small subunit recognizes the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (AGGAGG) in mRNA since its 16S RNA contains anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence (UCCUCC). The attachment of the complementary sequences results in the proper positioning of the small subunit to the start (AUG) codon (Figure I-12). In the eukaryotes the initiation of the protein synthesis is similar: Met-tRNA binds to the small subunit with the help of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2). The small subunit recognizes the first AUG codon following 5’ cap structure of mRNA (scanning) and the Kozak sequence promotes the connection between the mRNA and the small subunit (Figure 1.13.). Initiation is ended by the formation of the 70S or 80S ribosome complex (Figure 1.14.).

Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes (With Diagram)

The mRNA structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is different: the eukaryotic mRNA possess 5’ cap structure and 3’-poly(A) tail, unlike the prokaryotic mRNA. In prokaryotes, the localization of the ribosome is facilitated by Shine-Dalgarno sequence located in the 5’ UTR (untranslated region); while in eukaryotes this is the duty of Kozak sequence in a similar region (Figure 1.8.). Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic – a single mRNA responsible for coding several proteins – while eukaryotic mRNA is monocistronic. Start codon encodes fMet and is preceded by the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes. In eukaryotes the start codon is the first AUG following the 5’ cap and encodes Met; inner AUG cannot be initiation site, as it always encodes Met (Figure 1.9.).