The sequence is a small part of a gene that codes for a protein

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

quiz protein synthesis - Biology Junction

It is important to note that the tRNA is reused and collects another specific amino acid. Once the protein has been mRNA may move to another ribosome to make a further protein or it can be broken down into free nucleotides to be reused.

What contributes to the function of CFTR proteins once they reach the cell surface? .

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Quiz - zeroBio


Congratulations, you did it!
Use an analogy* to tell the story of a protein from start to finish (export to a location inside or outside of the cell).
Wrap it up:
*An analogy uses real-world connections to make complex concepts more concrete by likening something you don't fully understand to something that you do.


Learning Target

Standard 2.1: Students will be able to identify biomolecules and their precursors/building blocks

In this web quest we will specifically look at proteins, one of the 4 major classes of macromolecules.


Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

One of the most important activities of a cell is the production of proteins that fulfill major roles in the cell--structural, enzymatic, hormonal, and more. Chromosomes never leave the nucleus of the cell. However, protein synthesis is carried out by the , small structures which either float freely in the cytoplasm or are attached to membrane networks that snake their way through the cell—both outside the nucleus.

This section will explain briefly and superficially the way the instructions reach the ribosomes and how they are translated into the language of proteins. This information is not critical for understanding the use of DNA for genealogy but does form a foundation for understanding the way genetic mutations are expressed and a basis for understanding genetic differences.

A protein is a chainlike molecule built of subunits of smaller molecules called amino acids. We obtain most of our amino acids by digesting proteins taken in with our food. The digestive process breaks the protein chains down into individual amino acid molecules which are then absorbed by the blood and transported to the individual body cells. Human cells can also manufacture some amino acids. However, eight of the amino acids that are essential to building human proteins must be acquired from food. They eight essential amino acids are phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan and methionine. Histidine is essential for infants but not for adults.

When are ribosomes used in the process of protein synthesis

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

When the cell needs to make a protein, mRNA is created in the nucleus

This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.