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Protein Synthesis & Nitrogen Retention - i …

Parameters measured were nutrient digestibility, volatile (VFA) profile, NH3 concentration, microbial protein synthesis, feed intake and daily gain of beef cattle during 90 days of feeding trial.

It contains all the elements of high performance nutrition with longer acting nitrogen sources
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Nitrogen balance and protein requirements - UCL

16 Urea and Other Nonprotein Nitrogen Compounds in Animal Nutrition3. The quality of a bacterial protein is lower than that of protozoalprotein; however, attempts to shift ruminal ratios of bacteria to proto-zoa have not always improved results. Microbial protein contains about20 percent nucleic acid, which is not utilized efficiently by the animalfor protein synthesis. Also, the high proportion of cell walls in the mi-crobes reduces protein quality. When cattle are fed diets in which ureais the only nitrogen source and compared to control animals receivingnatural protein, they have slower rates of growth and lower blood levelsof isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine, but increased bloodlevels of glycine and serine.4. Major research is needed on the means of feeding sufficient NPNto maintain a viable microbial population that in turn would supply themajor portion of the protein needed by the host animal. Accompanyingresearch is needed to determine how to protect high-quality dietary pro-tein from ruminal degradation. The development of such methodswould make it possible to efficiently use NPN sources in diets of high-performance animals.5. Prevention of urea toxicity is a management function; and, ifproper management is exercised, the incidence of ammonia toxicity isextremely low. Toxicity symptoms were described, and treatmentmethods were suggested. Research results indicate that high levels ofrumen and blood ammonia do not increase the incidence of abortionsin cow herds. Furthermore, subsequent reproductive performances ofcows surviving high levels of rumen and blood ammonia were notaffected.

10/01/2018 · Nitrogen balance and protein requirements
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Simple regression analysis of the studies as a whole estimates neutral nitrogen balance, not necessarily the highest retention, would occur at 1.35 g protein/kg/day (.215 g N/kg/day). After adding one to two standard deviations (12.5% per SD) (National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, 1989) to cover up to 98% of resistance-trained individuals, the figure becomes 1.52 g protein/kg/day (.243 g N/kg/day) or 1.69 g protein/kg/day (.270 g N/kg/day). A more cautious approach would be to start with the protein "requirement" for neutral nitrogen balance at 1.35 g/kg/day and add, for example, a reasonable amount for growth such as the 5.5 g protein/day mentioned earlier. Perhaps once a resistance trainee has reached full genetic potential (when further hypertrophy ceases to occur in the absence of overtraining), that trainee could gradually reduce protein intake to maintain nitrogen balance. These figures arrived at by linear regression and simple arithmetic are in agreement with at least one other review, falling within the range of 1.4-1.8 g protein/kg/day proposed by Lemon (1995).

21/11/2015 · Nitrogen metabolism, digestive parameters, and protein ..
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Other extraneous variables exist that make designing, conducting, interpreting, and comparing studies assessing the adequacy of protein intake among anaerobic participants difficult. For example, variation in the quality (biological value) of the protein consumed in different studies would certainly be a consideration. A more recent concern is timing of the protein consumption relative to the strength-training bout, because it is postulated that protein utilization may be higher immediately following a workout (Lemon, 1997). Even the timing of post-workout carbohydrate ingestion can have effects on nitrogen retention (Roy, Tarnopolsky, MacDougall, Fowles, and Yarasheski, 1997).

Nitrogen Balance: The Key To Muscle Growth.

Other shortcomings on nitrogen balance studies for the purpose of assessing resistance trainees have been published. Tarnopolsky, Atkinson et al. commented on an unidentified inherent error in the nitrogen balance method that may lead one to conclude that an excessive protein intake is of ergogenic benefit. Tarnopolsky, Atkinson et al. cite other studies in addition to theirs that point to a discrepancy between nitrogen balance and other measures of whole-body protein synthesis. Thus, they recommend that nitrogen balance be used in conjunction with other techniques.

if protein synthesis is to take place

A common misconception regarding nitrogen balance studies is that muscle hypertrophy is impossible when an individual is in negative nitrogen balance. In fact, muscle growth can occur when protein intake is insufficient by the stealing of amino acids from other organs. However, this process cannot continue indefinitely and a higher protein diet would likely prove superior (Lemon, 1995).

to ensure maximal nitrogen retention

Also very consistent throughout the studies was the use of exclusively male subjects, with the exception of the study using senior citizens which used both males and females. It is unlikely that there is an intersex difference between males and females in their ability to utilize protein with the same efficiency (National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, 1989). However, it is possible that females cannot incorporate as much nitrogen daily for muscle growth since they secrete approximately one tenth as much of the anabolic hormone testosterone as males do (Holloway, 1994). Testosterone also elicits the secretion of other growth-promoting hormones that affect muscle protein metabolism (Kraemer, 1992 a). The hypertrophic response may even vary with the menstrual cycle (Kraemer, 1992 b). The role of gender on nitrogen retention deserves further exploration.