Consistent with the hypothesis of a putative interplay ..
Physical and cognitive performance of acute lung injury patients one year after initial trophic vs full enteral feeding: EDEN trial follow-Up%2 PMC3827703%X ####RATIONALE: We hypothesized that providing patients with acute lung injury two different protein/calorie nutritional strategies in the intensive care unit may affect longer-term physical and cognitive performance.
Hypothesis: Compartmentalization of cytokines in ..
We hypothesized that a combination of biologic and clinical markers would be superior to either biomarkers or clinical factors alone in predicting ALI/ARDS mortality and would provide insight into the pathogenesis of clinical ALI/ARDS.
Despite the strong evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, not everyone exposed to prenatal cytokine imbalance develops schizophrenia. Therefore, we must consider the fact that cytokines are probably not acting alone and numerous other factors must be considered in light of or in combination with cytokine effects.
February 2000 - Volume 32 - Issue 2
While the risk conferred by early cytokine exposure is fairly well established, the cytokine hypothesis still fails to explain the long gap between prenatal insult and the onset of symptoms almost twenty years later. The most popular way to explain this is with the two-hit model: genetic and/or environmental factors disrupt early neurodevelopment, which creates long term error. Exposure to a second hit can trigger the onset of schizophrenic symptoms, by activating underlying vulnerabilities in the CNS. Not only can this long-term vulnerability exist in the brain, but it can also exist in the immune system .
Transforming Growth Factor and Atherosclerosis…
We have now established that there is substantial evidence for the critical role of cytokines found in epidemiologic data, studies of brain development and maturation, and results of animal models. Still, the hypothesis does not fully account for the long gap between neurodevelopmental insult and onset of symptoms, nor does it offer an explanation for any of the mechanistic changes . The remainder of this paper will examine other modulators that might contribute to the dysfunction caused by cytokines and how these changes are carried out throughout the remainder of development.
Transforming growth factor β and cardiovascular …
In concordance with the cytokine hypothesis and the two hit model, researchers believe that exposure to a robust inflammatory response in utero, could result in alternative programming of the immune system such that prenatal inflammation permanently alters homeostasis of the immune system . This may not become apparent until later in immune system development. Schizophrenia is associated with various neuroimmunological abnormalities, including chronic low-grade inflammation and overactive and sensitized microglia, indicating an altered baseline of immune homeostasis. This picture is supported by studies of mice exposed prenatally to influenza, PolyI:C, or IL-6 treatments. All of these treatment groups experienced enhanced microglia and persistent presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periphery .