Synthesis of propylene oxide from propylene …

Propylene glycol is used in organic synthesis, especially polypropylene glycol, polY est …
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An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring

This protocol describes the synthesis and purification of PPF through a two-step reaction of diethyl fumarate and propylene glycol to yield PPF through a bis(hydroxypropyl) fumarate diester intermediate . The particular procedures described herein are appropriate for the synthesis of PPF for biomedical applications, such as the fabrication of biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds and controlled bioactive factor delivery vehicles. High purity of the reactants and the exclusion of water from the reaction system are of critical importance to the production of high-molecular-weight polyesters in general, including PPF. Additionally, biomedical applications require the complete removal of organic solvents from the polymer product during the purification steps.

Production Industrial production of propylene oxide starts from propylene
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Reference Standards: Search Standards - Restek

In the first step of the synthesis, diethyl fumarate and propylene glycol are reacted in an inert atmosphere in a molar ratio of 1: 3, respectively. Additionally, ZnCl2 and hydroquinone are added as a catalyst and crosslinking inhibitor, respectively, in a 0.01: 0.002: 1 molar ratio to diethyl fumarate. The first step of the reaction occurs in a heated vessel under mechanical stirring, with a gradual increase in temperature from 110°C to 130°C. This stage of the procedure results in the production of the bis(hydroxypropyl) fumarate intermediate and ethanol, which is collected as a distillate. This step of the reaction is terminated when approximately 90% of the theoretical yield of ethanol is collected.

INEOS Oxide Products: Ethylene Oxide, EO glycols & antifreeze; Propylene Oxide ..
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The second step of the synthesis reaction involves transesterification of the bis(hydroxypropyl) fumarate intermediate to produce PPF. Here, the alkoxy group of bis(hydroxypropyl) fumarate is replaced with an alcohol from a second bis(hydroxypropyl) fumarate intermediate, propagating PPF polymerization and producing propylene glycol as a byproduct. This stage of the reaction is conducted under reduced pressure (

Propylene oxide is used in the production of polyethers (the primary component of polyurethane foams) and propylene glycol
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mesityl oxide, 141-79-7 - The Good Scents Company

a) 75 - 98 wt.-% of a copolymer which is obtainable by copolymerizing ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and/or butylene oxide with an initiator monool or diol, said copolymer having a degree of unsaturation of less than 0.01 meq/g; b) 0 - 5 wt.-% metal passivators such as tolyltriazole, benzothiazole and benzotriazole; c) 0 - 5 wt.-% antioxidants such as dialkylthiopropionates, organic amines and hindered phenols such as dilaurylthiopropionate, dioctyldiphenylamine, phenylnaphthylamine, phenothiazine and butylated hydroxytoluene; d) 0 - 5 wt.-% corrosion inhibitors such as organic acids, esters thereof, nitrogen-, phosphorous- and sulfur containing compounds, succinic acid derivatives, 4-nonylphenoxyacetic acid, alkyl and aryl phosphites; e) 0 - 5 wt.-% antiwear and extreme pressure additives such as dithiophosphates, amine phosphates, phosphorothionates, carbamates, alkyl and aryl phosphates; f) 0 - 5 wt.-% further additives such as dispersants, antifoam additives including polydimethylsiloxanes and polyalkylene glycols, and stabilizers;

PDF Downloads : Oriental Journal of Chemistry

a) 5 - 35 wt.-% of a copolymer which is obtainable by copolymerizing ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and/or butylene oxide with an initiator monool or diol, said copolymer having a degree of unsaturation of less than 0.01 meq/g; b) 65 - 95 wt.-% water; c) 0 - 5 wt.-% corrosion inhibitors such as organic acids, alkyl amines, esters thereof, nitrogen-, phosphorous- and sulfur containing compounds, and succinic acid derivatives; d) 0 - 5 wt.-% further additives such as dispersants, defoamers and stabilizers;

Journal of the American Chemical Society (ACS …

Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) is a linear polyester based upon fumaric acid, a component of the Krebs cycle. The main advantages of PPF are (1) the unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fumaric acid unit that allow for crosslinking of the polymer into a covalent polymer network, and (2) the formation of biocompatible and excretable degradation products, primarily fumaric acid and propylene glycol, upon hydrolysis of its ester linkages . The principle disadvantage of PPF is that it is a viscous liquid at room temperature (21°C), making handling of the polymer somewhat cumbersome.