Presynaptic protein synthesis in NT-3-induced synaptic modulation

T1 - Presynaptic Protein Synthesis Is Required for Long-Term Plasticity of GABA Release

Presynaptic protein synthesis required for NT-3 …

Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons. This long-term depression of inhibitory transmission (iLTD) involves cap-dependent protein synthesis in presynaptic interneuron axons, but not somata. Translation is required during the induction, but not maintenance, of iLTD. Mechanistically, CB1 activation enhances protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway. Furthermore, using super-resolution STORM microscopy, we revealed eukaryotic ribosomes in CB1-expressing axon terminals. These findings suggest that presynaptic local protein synthesis controls neurotransmitter release during long-term plasticity in the mature mammalian brain.

T1 - Axonal and presynaptic protein synthesis: new insights into the biology of the neuron

Protein synthesizing units in presynaptic and …

N2 - Putative protein synthesizing domains, called plaques, are characterized in the squid giant synapse and axon and in terminals of squid photoreceptor neurons. Plaques are oval-shaped formations of about 1 μm in size, which (1) generate signals that have spectroscopic electron energy loss characteristics of ribosomes, (2) exhibit ribonuclease-sensitive binding of YOYO-1, a fluorescent RNA/DNA dye, and (3) in part hybridize with a poly(dT) oligonucleotide. In the giant synapse plaques are abundant in the postsynaptic area, but are absent in the presynaptic terminal. In the cortical layer of the optic lobes, plaques are localized in the large carrot-shaped presynaptic terminals of photoreceptor neurons, where they are surrounded by synaptic vesicles and mitochondria. Biochemical and autoradiographic data have documented that the protein synthetic activity of squid optic lobe synaptosomes is largely due to the presynaptic terminals of the photoreceptor neurons. The identification of ribosomes and poly(A+)-mRNA in the plaques indicates that these structures are sites of local protein synthesis in synaptic domains.

N2 - A fundamental difference between short-term and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity is the dependence on transcription and translation of new genes. Using organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices, we have investigated whether the modulation of synapses by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also requires protein synthesis. Long-term treatment of hippocampal slice cultures with BDNF increased the number of docked vesicles, but not that of reserve pool vesicles, at CA1 excitatory synapses. BDNF also increased the levels of the vesicle proteins synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and synaptotagmin, without affecting the presynaptic membrane proteins syntaxin and SNAP-25, or the vesicle-binding protein synapsin-I. The increase in synaptophysin and synaptobrevin expression was moderate (2-fold) and occurred within 6 h after BDNF application. In contrast, synaptotagmin expression took 24 h to reach maximum levels (5-fold). The delayed increase in synaptotagmin was blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors, while the early increase in synaptophysin and synaptobrevin was not. Moreover, the BDNF-induced increase of synaptotagmin was blocked by inhibiting the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. However, BDNF did not activate PKA, and application of a PKA activator did not mimic the BDNF effect. Taken together, these results suggest a novel, protein synthesis-dependent form of BDNF modulation that requires cAMP gating.


At the Xenopus neuromuscular synapses, ..

N2 - Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons. This long-term depression of inhibitory transmission (iLTD) involves cap-dependent protein synthesis in presynaptic interneuron axons, but not somata. Translation is required during the induction, but not maintenance, of iLTD. Mechanistically, CB1 activation enhances protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway. Furthermore, using super-resolution STORM microscopy, we revealed eukaryotic ribosomes in CB1-expressing axon terminals. These findings suggest that presynaptic local protein synthesis controls neurotransmitter release during long-term plasticity in the mature mammalian brain.

Protein Synthesis in Neurons - eLS: Essential for Life Science

AB - A fundamental difference between short-term and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity is the dependence on transcription and translation of new genes. Using organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices, we have investigated whether the modulation of synapses by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also requires protein synthesis. Long-term treatment of hippocampal slice cultures with BDNF increased the number of docked vesicles, but not that of reserve pool vesicles, at CA1 excitatory synapses. BDNF also increased the levels of the vesicle proteins synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and synaptotagmin, without affecting the presynaptic membrane proteins syntaxin and SNAP-25, or the vesicle-binding protein synapsin-I. The increase in synaptophysin and synaptobrevin expression was moderate (2-fold) and occurred within 6 h after BDNF application. In contrast, synaptotagmin expression took 24 h to reach maximum levels (5-fold). The delayed increase in synaptotagmin was blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors, while the early increase in synaptophysin and synaptobrevin was not. Moreover, the BDNF-induced increase of synaptotagmin was blocked by inhibiting the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. However, BDNF did not activate PKA, and application of a PKA activator did not mimic the BDNF effect. Taken together, these results suggest a novel, protein synthesis-dependent form of BDNF modulation that requires cAMP gating.